1 2 3 4
 

BAchelor Programme

This programme is specially designed with emphasis on the application of scientific knowledge on industrial problemssss.

Studying industrial chemistry is excellent to choose a wide variety of useful, interesting and rewarding careers. The list of career possibilities for people with training in industrial chemistry is long and varies. Graduates find employment in government sector, research and development institutes, production, pharmaceutical, dairy, fermentation, beverages, fertilizer, paint, pulp and paper, tanning, oil and petroleum, cosmetics industries just to name a few.

The BSIC Programme is of four years. The first and second year of the programme is comprised of some core courses on chemistry, basic sciences and social sciences as per the guidelines of HEC. In the third year courses on separation techniques, spectroscopy, natural products, unit processes, industrial stoichiometry, nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry is conducted. In fourth year the students can select one specialization by choosing four elective courses of their interest and carry out a project on his/her area of specialization.

BAchelor COURSES

BS INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

FIRST YEAR

Spring Semester

Fall Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr

Total

Th

Pr

Total

CY-113

Inorganic Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-116

Analytical Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-114

Organic Chemistry  I

3

0

3

CY-117

Physical Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-115

Industrial Chemistry Lab I

0

1

1

CY-118

Industrial Chemistry Lab II

0

1

1

HS-104

Functional English

3

0

3

HS-105/
HS-127

Pakistan Studies/
Pakistan Studies (Foreigners)

2

0

2

PH-123

General Physics I

2

1

3

EE-119

Fundamentals of  Electrical Engineering

3

1

4

MT-173

Calculus

3

0

3

CT-158

Fundamentals of Information Technology

2

0

2

         

PH-124

General Physics II

2

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

         
 

SECOND YEAR

Spring Semester

Fall Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr

Total

Th

Pr

Total

   CY-205

Inorganic Chemistry   II

3

0

3

CY-209

Analytical Chemistry  II

3

0

3

   CY-208

Organic Chemistry  II

3

0

3

CY-210

Physical Chemistry II

3

0

3

CY-206

Industrial Chemistry Lab III

0

1

1

CY-207

Industrial Chemistry Lab IV

0

1

1

HS-205
HS-209

*Islamic Studies/
Ethical Behavior

2

0

2

HS-201

Oral Communication

2

1

3

MT-223

*Ordinary Differential Equations & Fourier Series

3

0

3

CH-202

Fluid Mechanics-I

3

1

4

MT-331

*Probability & Statistic s

3

0

3

EL-102

Basic Electronics

3

1

4

CT-153

*Programming languages

2

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

THIRD YEAR

Spring Semester

Fall Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr

Total

Th

Pr

Total

CY-313

Polymer Science

3

0

3

CY-404

Separation Techniques

3

0

3

CY-305

Industrial Stoichiometry

3

0

3

CY-303

Reaction Kinetics

3

0

3

CY-310

Industrial Chemistry Lab V

0

1

1

CY-308

Unit Processes

3

0

3

HS-301

Business & Organizational Communication

3

0

3

CY-311

Industrial Chemistry Lab VI

0

1

1

CH-206

Thermodynamics

3

1

4

CY-314

Natural Products

3

0

3

   CY-312

Spectroscopy

3

0

3

CY-315

Nuclear & Radiation Chemistry

3

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

CH-203

Chemical Process Industries

3

0

3

 

FINAL YEAR

Spring Semester

Fall Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr

Total

Th

Pr

Total

CY-402

Environmental Chemistry

3

0

3

CY-416

Nanotechnology

3

0

3

CH-405

Industrial Safety & Maintenance Management

2

1

3

 

Elective-III

 

 

 

 

Elective- I

 

 

 

 

Elective-IV

 

 

 

 

Elective-II

 

 

 

CY-415

Industrial  Chemistry Project

 

0

6

CY-415

**Industrial  Chemistry Project

0

6

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELECTIVE COURSES

Course Code

Course Title

Course Code

Course Title

CY-403

Beverages Technology

CY-413

Surfactants & cosmetics

CY-406

Fat & Oil Processing

CH-406

Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals

CY-414

Pharmaceutical  Chemistry

CY-408

Polymer Technology

CY-411

Surface coatings

CH-407

Industrial Organization & Management

 

 

 

CY-101 Inorganic Chemistry
Atomic Structure: Development of theories for atomic structure, discovery of fundamental subatomic particles, Bohr’s model for Hydrogen, Line spectrum, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Quantum numbers and their significance, wave Mechanics, Wave properties of the matter, the Schrödinger equation, Applications of wave equation to some simple problem. A particle in one dimension box, a particle in a cubic box, a particle on a ring, Writing Schrödinger equation for simple molecule and ion.
Periodic Table: Electronic configuration and periodic table, periodicity, group trends in atomic and ionic radii, ionization energies, electro negativity, ionization potential, electron affinity, oxidation potentials, electrode potential, magnetic properties, Para and diamagnetisms.
Chemical Bonding In s and p Block Elements: Effective atomic number and shielding constant, types of chemical bonds. Ionic bond, covalent bond, The concept of hybridization and its applications, Writing wave equations of hybrid orbitals, Lattice energy and Born Haber cycle of Ionic compounds, related numericals.
Non Metals: Hydrogen and Hydrides, Chemistry of noble gases with reference to synthesis properties of Xenon compounds and properties of Xenon compounds. Determination of structure of these compounds.
Chemistry of Halogens: Group trends, preparation and properties of oxides, oxo acids, oxo salts of halogens. Inter halogen and poly halides. Pseudo  halogens. Oxygen and Sulfur: Group trend, Preparation and properties of Oxides, Sulphides and oxoacids of Sulphur. Carbon and Silicon: Group trend, Fullerene, Silicones and Silicates. Boron: General Characteristics of  Boron. Preparation, Properties and Structure of Boron Hydride using STYX method, Note: The structure of other nonmetal compounds are covered under molecular structure
Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Acid base reactions, strong weak acids and bases, Net Ionic equations for acid base interactions. Precipitation reactions, kspvalues.Redox reactions, balancing redox equations.
Acids and Bases:Review of the concepts of Chemical Equilibrium, Arrhenius and Bronsted  theories of acids and bases, Self-Ionization of  water, pH scale,  Kw, Strong and  Weak Acids and Bases, Ka and Kb, Polyprotic acid, Ions as Acids and Bases, Common Ion Effect in acid base Equilibria, Buffer Solutions, Molecular structure and acid base behaviour. Indicators, Neutralization Reactions, Titration Curves, Solutions of  Salts of Polyprotic Acids, Solubility Equilibria, pH, Lewis Acids and Bases, Hard and Soft Acids and Bases.

CY-102 Organic Chemistry
Basic Concepts: Bonding, Reactivity of organic compounds. Oxidation states of carbon; Structure and stability of reactive intermediates, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, Types of reactions, Factors effecting reactions (reaction mechanism
Isomerism: Structural isomerism, Stereoisomerism, Geometrical isomerism Optical isomerism
Chemistry Of Alkanes And Cycloalkanes: Nomenclature, Natural occurrence and Physical properties Preparation and Reactions of alkane and cyclo alkane, Relative stability of small, normal, medium and large sized rings.
Chemistry of Alkenes And Alkyne Alkenes: Nomenclature, natural occurrence, physical properties and acidity of alkynes. Preparations and Reactions of alkenes and alkynes.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature, Aromaticity. Preparation and Reactions of aromatic compounds, Comparison of reactivity of benzene, aromatic heteocyclic systems and condensed aromatic systems.Electophilic  substitution reactions of  benzene, heterocylic aromatic   compounds  (5 and 6 membered) and   condensed aromatic systems (naphthalene and anthracene), 
Alkyl Halides: Nomenclature, classification and physical properties, Preparation of alkyl halides:

CY-103 ANALYTICAL Chemistry
Introduction:An introduction to analytical chemistry, Scope of analytical chemistry, major steps in total chemical analysis, a general survey of all analytical methods.
Errors in Chemical Analysis: Evaluation of reliability of analytical data, significant figures, selection of central best value from a set of data, precision and accuracy, methods to measure precision, classification of errors, the distribution of data from replicate measurements, comparison of results Student ‘t’ test, Modern trends in quality control.
Atomic Spectroscopy: An introduction to the instrumentation of AAS. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, flame emission spectroscopy, a basic introduction to inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic fluorescence.
Molecular Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic radiation, wave and particle concept, scattering, reflection, refraction and dispersion of light by matter, line and band spectrum molecules. The phenomenon of fluorescence and phosphorescence, absorption laws deviations from the Beer’s law, chemical reactions and refractive index.
Optical Methods of Analysis: a) Main components of a spectrophotometer, difference between a colorimeter and a spectrophotometer, UV-visible single beam and double beam spectrophotometer, b) Selection of wavelength for quantitative analysis, calibration curve and application of Beer’s law in quantitative analysis, application of absorbance measurement to locate the end point of titration, simultaneous determination of two components system, determination of the formula of the complex using the absorbance measurements mole ratio method, method of continuous variation, slope ratio method, applications of spectrophotometric data for studying chemical equilibrium and the evaluation of equilibrium constants.
Analysis of Real Samples: Sampling, digestion of samples by dry and wet ashing with special reference to Kjeldahl’s method for nitrogen determination, fluxes, series dilution for instrumental analysis, standard addition method, internal standard method and numerical problems.
Chromatography: Introduction, classification and applications of chromatography, theory of chromatography, adsorption chromatography, partition chromatography, efficiency of column, resolution of column, quantitative and qualitative analysis by chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, gas liquid chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography
CY-104 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Chemical Dynamics in Gases: The Postulates of kinetic theory of Gases. Translational K.E. of molecules, kinetic theory of temperature. Energy units for PV and RT. Mean Square velocity & Root mean square velocity, Graham's law of effusion. Distribution of molecular velocities, Vander Waal's equation.
Kinetic Theory of Matter: Theories pertaining to distribution of energies into different groups Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law for energies of molecular systems, method for the determination of Avogadro’s number.
Solution: The properties of simple mixtures/ solutions. Concentration terms, The thermodynamic description of mixtures. Partial molar quantities, The chemical potential of liquids, Ideal solutions. Raoult's law. The properties of solutions: liquid mixtures, colligative properties. The common features of colligative properties, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, solubility, Osmosis and Osmotic pressure, solvent and solute activity. Vant Hoff's theory of dilute solutions, pH and pOH of solutions, Acid/Base ionization constants, Relationship of acidity and basicity with dissociation constant, Buffer solutions, Composition and action of buffer solution, buffer capacity, Henderson-Hasselbalch relation, pH control in biological systems.
Electrochemistry: Introduction to electrochemical processes: Redox Reactions, electrode potential of a cell, Nernst theory of electrode potential, Quantitative aspects of electrolysis, Electrolysis of molten salts.Electrolysis of aqueous solutions, Laws of electrolysis, Characteristics of working cell. Corrosion, rate of corrosion, inhibition of corrosion, The electrical currents in ionic solutions: Conductivities and their measurements, Migration of ions, ionic mobility, measurements of ionic motilities’.Molar conductance of electrolytes at infinite dilution, Transference numbers and their determination, Influence of various factors on conductance, Applications of conductance measurement.
Introduction to Phase Equilibria: Phase, component and degree of freedom. Phase rule and its applications, One component system (water, carbon dioxide).Polymorphism, enantiotropy.Two component systems (sulpher, Pb, Ag system),Vapour pressure diagram, Temperature composition diagrams,Azeotropes.Liquid-liquid phase.Liquid-solid phase.

 

CY-201 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Theories of Bonding: Valence bond theory, Molecular orbital theory, writing wave equations of molecules with reference to homonuclearhetereonuclear& poly nuclear structure. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory.
Molecular Structure: Prediction of hybridization, geometry and drawing structure of molecules and ions.
Thermochemistry:System and surroundings, Enthalpy, Thermochemical equations, Law of Thermochemistry, Problem related to calculation of  DHrn.
Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, Relation among  DG, DH, DS and equilibrium constant K of a reaction. Problem related to DG= DH-TDS, DG = -RTlnK and DG = -nFE0
Transition Elements:General characteristics of Transition Metal Elements, A comparison of First, Second and Third transition series elements. 
Crystal field theory:Splitting of d-orbitals in an octahedral, tetrahedral, distorted octahedral, square pyramid, square planar and trigonalbipyramidfield.Jahn- Teller effect.Calculation of Crystal Field Stabilization.Energies and writing electronic configuration of complex ions.High-spin & Low-spin complexes. Thermodynamic effects of crystal field theory.
Molecular Orbital Theory:Molecular Orbital Energy diagrams of octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes. Writing molecular orbital configuration of octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes.p-bonding in complexes and its effect on Crystal Field Splitting Energy.
Mechanism Of Reactions
Stability Of Complex ions: Factors on which Stability of a Complex ion depends, Distinction between Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability, Stepwise and overall formation Constants of Complex ions.
Magnetic Properties Of Complex ions:Paramagnetic and diamagnetic complexes, Calculation of ms, ms+L, meff and the relationship between the three.
Electronic Absorption Spectrum Of Transition metal Complexes: Octahedral and tetrahedral complexes, d2-d8 ions Energy level diagram, Charge transfer spectra.
Lanthanide and Actinide Elements: General Characteristics, Contraction, Oxidation States, Occurrence and Isolation.

CY-202  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Chemistry Of Alcohols And Phenols: Classification Nomenclature, Physical properties, Preparation of alcohols and phenols, Reactions of Alcohols and phenols.
Chemistry Of Ethers: Nomenclature and physical properties, Preparation and reactions of ethers.
Chemistry Of Carbonyl Compounds (Aldehydes And  Ketones):Nomenclature, Natural occurrence, Physical properties, Reactions of aldehydes and ketones.
Chemistry Of Carboxylic Acids And Their Derivatives: Nomenclature, Natural occurrence, Physical properties and preparation of carboxylic acids
Chemistry Of Amines: Nomenclature, Classification and physical properties of amines, Preparation and reaction of amines.

CY-203 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Conductance:Theory of electrolytes, electrolytic conduction, conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance, circuit of conductivity meter, measurements of cell constant, Arrhenius theory of ionization, Debye Huckel theory, Asymmetry or relaxation effect, Solvent effect, Electrophoretic effect, Debye HuckelOnsagar equation, Ion pair, Ion triplet formation, Transport numbers, Ion motilities and their calculations, Types of conductometric titrations, Applications of conductance in relation to Aa&Ka for weak and strong electrolyte, Determination of absolute ionic motilities, Solubility of sparingly soluble salts, Kw, Basicity of an organic acid, Speed ratio by transport number, Advantages of conductometric titration over volumetric titration.
pHMetry: Theory of pHmetry, self ionization reactions, ionic product of water, acidity and basicity constants, degree of ionization, neutralization reactions, hydrolysis of salts, hydrolytic constants, calculation of pH, pOH (acids, bases and salt solutions), pH titrations of monoprotic and polyprotic acids, determination of pKa of acids, buffer solutions, indicators.
Potentiometry: Theory of potentiometry, Nernt equation, Classification of electrodes, Reference electrodes (NHE, SCE, Ag/AgCI), Test electrodes Pt, Glass and ion selective, Standard electrode potential, Formal potential, Determination ionic strength, Activity and activity coefficient. Concentrations cells, Liquid junction potential (salt bridge), Types of reactions studied by potentiometry, determination of equivalence point by data analysis and other methods.
Polarography and Voltametry: Theory of polarography and voltametry. Faradic and non Faradic processes, Migration, Diffusion and charge currents, Polarographic circuits, Fick's diffusion law, Ilkovic and RandlesSevcik equation, Supporting electrolytes, Potential window, interference from dissolved oxygen, Polarographic maxima, Type of test electrodes, Advantages of mercury test electrode, Polarographic techniques: theory, circuit and advantages, amperometry, bi-amperometry: theory, application and advantages, chronopotentiometry: theory, applications and advantages, Electrogravimetry, types of coulometric titrations, applications, anodic stripping, voltammetry: theory, applications and advantages, Numerical based on potentiometry, polarography and coulometry.

CY-204 Physical Chemistry
Chemical Equilibrium: Spontaneous chemical reactions and equilibrium. Properties of equilibrium state.Effects of external stress on equilibria (Le Chatelier's Principle), the reaction quotient, Response of equilibria to the conditions such as concentration, pressure, temperature.Relationship between Kc and Kp. Heterogeneous equilibria.The nature of solubility equilibria.Distribution law and its validity.Application of the distribution law to the selected systems like solvent extraction, extraction of metals from their ore, investigation of complex ions, chromatography, acid base equilibrium and biological activity.
Thermodynamics And Thermochemistry: Zeroth, first and second laws of thermodynamics, state functions, system and its surrounding, thermodynamic reversibility and irreversibility. Work done and the change of internal energy during isothermal expansion of an ideal gas. Change of internal energy due to heat transfer at constant volume and constant pressure. Heat capacities of a gas at constant volume and constant pressure, Thermochemistry, enthalpy, entropy.Standardstates,Hess’s Law.
Colloids: Colloids, types of colloids, properties and preparation of colloidal solution. Examples of surface phenomena.
The Properties Of Surfaces:Properties of liquid surfaces. Surfactants. The experimental study of surface films, physical properties of monolayer, Langmuir- Blodgett film. Adsorption of liquid on surface, physisorption, chemisorption. Adsorption isotherm: The Langmuir isotherm, The BET isotherm.Fruendlich isotherm. Colloidal systems: Introduction, properties of colloids. Classification. Preparation of colloids Macromolecules: Natural and synthetic polymers, reactivity of polymers

CY-301 SEPARATIONTechniques
Evaporation: Types of evaporators, jacketed, horizontal and vertical tube evaporators, force circulation evaporation, entrainment separators, multiple effect evaporators.
Distillation: Boiling and distillation, vapour liquid equilibria, azeotropic mixture, multi component systems, flash distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, extractive distillation, batch and continuous distillation, fractional distillation, equipment and working of rectifiers, use of packed column.
Extraction: Liquid equilibria, reflux and agitation, extraction equipment, continuous contact equipment, packed spray extractors, leaching, continuous leaching, counter current extraction.
Filtration: Theory of filtration, pressure and vacuum filtration, filter aids, principles of cake filtrations, cake filtration parameters, washing filter cake, centrifugal filtration, Nutsch and continuous filters.
Crystallization: Crystallization from aqueous, non-aqueous solutions and melts, factors affecting purity, fractional crystallization, super saturation, nucleation, crystal growth, factors accelerating growth, separation of crystals, contaminants and their removal, crystal hydrates and solvates, decomposition of crystals, deliquescence and hygroscopicity, efflorescence, dehydration,  crystallization equipment

CY-302 Spectroscopy
UV- Visible Spectroscopy: Energy transitions in molecules, types of electronic transitions in molecules (n- 1(, 1(- 1( ., cr-cr* etc.), selection rules, Beer's Lambert law and electronic spectra,. explanation of bathochromic, hypsochromic shifts, fundamentals of the optical components of spectrometers, radiation sources, monochromators based on Czerny Turner mounting, and echelle gratings, detectors, photometric accuracy and high precisiontechniques, spectrophotometric errors, analysis of multicomponent analysis and derivative spectroscopy, diode array spectrophotometers.
Infrared Spectrophotometry: Interaction of infrared radiation with molecules, types of molecular vibrations, selection rules, instrumentation, optical materials, sources, .detectors used in IR spectroscopy. Interfometric (Fourier Transform). Spectrophotometers, calibration and standardization,  preparation of samples for the analysis of solids, liquids and gases.
Luminescence Spectrometry (Fluorescence, Phosphorescence &Chemiluminescence):Introduction, types of luminescence, energy levels 111 luminescent molecules, Process involving excited states I.e. absorption, vibrational relaxation, internal conversion, fluorescence, intersystem crossing and phosphorescence. Instrumentation for fluorescence measurements 'and phosphoresce measurements, excitation and emission spectra, luminescence efficiency and factors affecting it, post and pre­filter effects. Mathematical relationship between luminescence and concentration and analytical applications Atomic
Spectroscopy:
Atomic Absorption: Flame and Electrothermal Atomization Methods:Sample atomization, types and sources of atomic spectra, radiation sources (Hollow cathode lamp, Electrode discharge lamp), burners and nebulizers, atomization cells (flames and graphite furnace), atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame emi~sion spectroscopy. Interferences and their control, cold vapor for mercury and hydride generation techniques for trace analysis of metals. Background correction by deuterium lamp, Smith Hieftje technique and Zeeman effect. .
Emission spectroscopy: Use of Grotrian diagram, the phenomenon of flame emission and interferences encountered in flame emission, emission spectroscopy based on plasma sources and ICP spectrometer, simultaneous analysis of elements by ICP.

CY-303Reaction Kinetics
Introduction and Scope of Chemical Kinetics:Experimental techniques for the determination of reaction rate, real time analysis, quenching method, flow method, stopped flow technique, flash photolysis, and electrochemical analysis, Factors affecting the rate of chemical reaction, Order and molecularity,Kinetics’ of Zero order reaction, first order reaction, second reaction order (with same initial and different initial concentration), and pseudo order reactions, Half life for various order reactions,Methods for the determination of order of reactions,The collision Theory, The Transition State Theory,The Arrhenius Theory, Activation parameters. The kinetics and mechanism of complex reactions: chain reaction, polymerization, catalysis and oscillation.
Third and higher order reactions:Deduction of third order reactions with same and different initial concentrations of the reactants,Rate expression of 2A+B            Products,Relation between rate equations for the forward and backward reactions,Reversible first order reactions,Consecutive first order reaction,Effect of temperature on rate constant and equilibrium constant, frequency factor,Concept of steric and energy factor,Arrhenius parameters for biomolecularreactions.Metathesis reactions not involving atoms,Association reactions of radicals,Hinshelwood theory of unimolecularreaction,Bimolecular collision theory,Trimolecularreactions,Branched and unbranched chain reactions.
Influenceofionicstrengthon the reaction rate. Reactions in solutions,Effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the rate of the reaction. Single sphere activated complex model. Double sphere activated complex model, Complex reactions,Chainreactions,Single chain carrier with second order breaking,One chain carrier with first order breaking. Two chain carrier with second order breaking, Experimental techniques for fast reactions.

CY-304   NATURAL PRODUCTS I
Introduction to natural product: Primary and secondary natural products.
Introduction to Biochemistry: Brief introduction, scope and history of Biochemistry, Cell structures and their functions, Origin and nature of biomolecules.
Vitamins: Introduction, Fat and water soluble vitamins Chemistry and structural determination of vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin) and Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).
Carbohydrates:Introduction to carbohydrates, Monosaccharaides: Natural occurrence. Structure,Stereochemistry and absolute configuration, Stereo chemical relationship with glyceraldehyde, Stereoisomers of aldoses from D and L glyceraldehyde, Determination of ring size of aldoses and pentoses. Structure determination of D-(+)Glucose: Chemical methods, Spectroscopic methods, Reactions of monosaccharaides, Structure, occurrence and importance of deoxysugars, Aminosugars and Dihydroxy sugars, Sequencing, Structure and Conformations of sucrose, lactose, maltose, raffinose, starch, cellulose and glycogen, Reducing and non-reducing sugars, Detection of sugars by chemical and chromatographic methods.
Steroids: Introduction to steroids, Cholesterol; Occurrence, isolation, physical properties, medicinal importance and Structure elucidation by chemical methods and spectroscopic methods.
Proteins:Chemistry, Classification, Physical and chemical properties of amino acids, Biological significance of amino acids, peptides and Proteins, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure of proteins. Denaturation of proteins.
Nucleic Acids: Chemical composition of nucleic acids, Structure and biological significance, Chemical synthesis, hydrolysis, Isolation and separation of Nucleic acids, Introduction to recombinant DNA technology.

CY-305  Industrial Stoichiometry
Units and Dimension, conversion of units dimension analysis, stoichiometric and composition, concepts of ideal gases, vapor pressure saturation and humidity as applied material balance calculation Introduction to material & energy balance computation.
Material balancing involving consecutive reactions, recycling and purging of streams, energy computation and conservation in respect of selected unit process and unit operation combined material and energy balance calculation over process with particular reference to petroleum refining.
CY-306           NMR & MASS SPECTROSCOPY
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Background &Principles:Introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance; chemical shifts; spin-spin splitting (spin coupling); relaxation times.
Instrumentation:Magnets; sample probes; Radiofrequency sources detectors; Techniques in instrumentation, Sample handling: NMR solvents; Purity; Reference compounds (TMS etc),
Quantitative aspects:1H NMR: Interpretation; Structural elucidation; Concept of isotopomers isotopic substitution.
13C NMR: Interpretation; Structural elucidation; Concept of isotopomers isotopic substitution
Multi-nuclear NMR: 19F, 31P, 2H, 11B, 129Xe, 79Br, 81Br NMR and other NMR active nuclei.
Mass Spectrometry:
Introduction to mass spectrometry, EI, CI, FAB, MALDI ms, Instrument components, Behavior  and interpretation of various classes of compounds in mass spectrometry, Applications in chemical analysis.
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Background and principles of ESR, Comparison with NMR; Instrumentation; Application of ESR in structure elucidation, Spectra of organic free radicals and spectra of radical containing hetero-atoms.
Spectra of Transition Metal Complexes
Quantum numbers and shapes of orbitals, Spin states, Terms, Spin multiplicity. Electronic transitions in metals Spectra of octahedral and tetrahedral symmetries, Charge transfer spectra. Analysis of spectra,. Analysis of band shapes and intensities, Jahn-Teller effects, spectral assignments and derivation of ligand field parameters. Spectrochemical and nephelauxetic series.

CY-307 Natural Products II
Introduction to natural product; primary and secondary natural products
Alkaloids:Introduction, occurrence, classification, nomenclature.General methods for the detection of structure of alkaloids; Physical methods: IR, UV, mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and chemical Methods: oxygen functions; hydroxyl, carboxylic, carbonyl, ester, lactone, amido, lactam or betaine, methoxy and methylenedioxy group, Zerwittinoffs active hydrogen, nitrogen functions, determination of basic skeleton: Hoffmann’s exhaustive methylation, Emed’s modification, Von-Braun’s method, ZnCl2-distillation, Fusion with KOH, oxidation, reduction; presence of unsaturation.
Coniin: occurrence, isolation, physical properties, medicinal importance. Structural elucidation by chemical methods; structure and molecular formula, ZnCl2-distillation, oxidation, reaction with HI, Hoffmann’s exhaustive methylation and synthesis of coniine. Structural elucidation by spectroscopic methods;  IR, UV, Mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.
Nicotine: occurrence, isolation, physical properties, medicinal importance. Structural elucidation by chemical methods; structure and molecular formula, oxidation, ZnCl2-distillation, reaction with HI, reaction with MeI, oxidation of methiodide and synthesis of nicotine.Structural elucidation by spectroscopic methods; IR, UV, Mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.Papaverine: occurrence, isolation, physical properties, medicinal importance. Structural elucidation by chemical methods: structure and molecular formula, , reaction with HI, reaction with MeI, reaction with cold KMnO4, reaction with hot KMnO4, reaction with conc. KMnO4; structural elucidation of veratric, metahemipinic acid, pyridine,2,3,4-tricarboxylic acid and 6,7-dimethoxy isoquinoline-1-carboxylic acid and synthesis of papaverine. Structural determination by spectroscopic methods; IR, UV, Mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.
Quinine: occurrence, isolation, physical properties, medicinal importance, Structural elucidation by chemical methods; structure and molecular formula, reaction with HI, reaction with MeI, oxidation with CrO3, reaction with bromine, oxidation with acidic KMnO4, oxidation with chromic acid, structure of quinic acid, structure of meroqiunine, position of CHOH group, and synthesis of quinine. Srucrural elucidation by spectroscopic methods; IR, UV, Mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.
Terpenes And Terpenoids:General introduction and classification, Isoprene rule, general methods of determining the structure. Monoterpenes: acyclic; chemistry and synthesis of myracene, citral and geraniol, monocyclic; -terpenol, bicylic;chemistry and synthesis of -pinene and camphor.Diterpenes; gibbrellins chemistry and structural determination using spectroscopic methods.

CY-308UnitProcesses
Industrial application of following unit process with imphasis on their Kinetic behavior and economical importance, Nitration, esterification amination, Halogenations, Sulphonation oxidation and hydrogenation.Sulphuric acid and Nitric acid. Caustic soda ammonia solvay.   Introduction to biological industries process.
CY-309   Nuclear Chemistry
Atomic nucleus, nuclides, nuclear stability, modes of decay, nuclear, energetic, nuclear models (shell + liquid drop model), fusion and fission, non spontaneous nuclear processes, nuclear reactors, beta decay  systematic , nuclear spins.
Recent Advances in Atomic Structure: Unification theory based upon concepts of quarks, fours forces of nature and explanation of quantum numbers proposed and experimentally justified.
Insight into Nuclear Decay Process: Atomic nucleus & modes of radioactive decay. Instability concepts, Radioisotopes.Units of radioactive decay process. Decay schemes, radioactive equilibrium.
Nuclear Reactor:Desine types and working of reactor.
Detection Methods: Methods based on ion collection, Scintillation detectors, Semi conductor detectors. Discussions on specific applications of detection devices.
Study of LabelledCompounds:Preparation and dispersion of labeled compounds. Details of job oriented labeled compounds.
Statistics of Radioactive Decay:Decay rate and statistics. Practical consideration.Optimum counting rate, Background count.
Radiation Protection and Control: Units of radiation exposure. Safety measures.
Radioisotopes in Chemical Applications:Radiocarbon dating. Isotope dilution techniques Neutron activation analysis.Radiometricanalysis.Gravimetricmethods.Radio immune assay.Applications of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical dispersions.Radio tracers in chemical applications. Study of self exchange reactions.
Chemical Effect Of Nuclear Decay: An introduction to hot atom chemistry. Recoiling atoms.Chemical effects of nuclear transformations.
Mosbauer Spectroscopy: Basic information, Experimental technique Parameters and chemical applications of Mossbauer spectroscopy.

 

CY-401  Radiation Chemistry
Introduction:History, development and advancement in radiation chemistry. Radiation Sources: Isotope and mechanical sources, pulsed radiolysis and flash spectroscopy. Interaction of Radiation with Matter: Photoelectric and Compton effect, pair production, energy loss, linear energy transfer. Radiation Dosimetry: Dose, absorbed dose units, radiation yields, dosimetry methods of absolute measurement, chemical dosimetry, Fricke dosimeter, dosimetry in pulse radiolysis. ENERGY States in Radiation Chemistry:Excited states its production. Product formation through excited state, fragmentation, pre dissociation, production, decay. evidence for the existence of excited state and its types. Ions and electrons, radiolysis of gases.radiolysis of liquids, solids, and frozen liquids and gases, behaviour  of ions in radiation chemistry: Ion recombination. dissociation and its types, charge transfer processes. ion-molecular reactions. electron addition. formation of free radicals, oxidation-reduction processes. Properties, reactions and detection of free radicals. Reactions in radiation chemistry: General energy transfer. characteristics and applications of gas, liquid and solid phase radiolysis. Instrumentation.purity of chemicals and methods, Recent applications of radiation chemistry. Radiation hazards and safe disposal of Radioactive wastes.
Photochemistry: Introduction. Basic principles and scope of photochemistry.Energy transfer in photochemical reactions .Rate of electron excitation, secondary reactions, quantum yield. Reaction kinetics. Absorption and emission of radiation: Introduction to quantum efficiencies of emission processes, radiative and non-radiative processes. Beer- Lambert's law, spectroscopy and photochemistry. Emission processes, luminescence, kinetics and quantum efficiencies of radiative and non-radiative processes (fluorescence. phosphorescence, inter system crossing, internal conversion, quenching), and Stern- Volmer reactions. Photosensitized reactions, photo-stationary state.Applied photochemistry, Atmospheric photochemistry, photosynthesis, photochemistry of polymers, photo-medicines.Techniques in photochemistry, introduction, light source.Incandescent filament lamps, discharge lamps, lasers, synchrotron reaction.
CY-402 Environment Chemistry
Atmospheric Chemistry: The air around us, atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, Temperature inversion and photochemical smog, particulate matter in the atmosphere, Industrial pollutants, radioactivity, atmospheric aerosols, Acid rain –major sources, mechanism, control measures and effects on buildings and vegetation, Global warming – major green house gases, mechanism, control measures and global impact, The stratospheric ozone – the ozone hole, CFCs, ozone protection, biological consequences of ozone depletion.
Water Pollution and Water Treatment:sources of water pollution-industrial sources and agricultural sources, heavy metals contamination of water, Eutrophification, detergents and phosphates in water, water quality criteria, Water purification – primary, secondary and advanced treatment, Removal of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds from polluted water, organic matter in water and its decomposition.
Soil Pollution: Soil and mineral resources, general principles of metal extraction, Heavy metals contamination of soil, toxicity of heavy metals, bio-accumulation of heavy metals, Organic matter in soil, Macro and micro-nutrients in soil, ion-exchange in soil, soil pH and nutrients availability.
Green Revolution:pest control, pesticides, toxicity of pesticides, integrated pests management. Energy Production and Environment: liquid and gaseous fuel, hydrogen economy. Renewable Energy: nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal and tidal energy.

CY-403 BEVERAGE Industries
Introduction: Definitions and Classifications
Mineral Water:Technology; Chemical Constitutions and Microbiology.
Soft Drinks:Carbonated& Non- Carbonated Beverages. Classifications; Compositions; Processing; Production; Bottling and Canning.
Fruit Juices:Citrus and Non-Citrus - Definitions; Classifications; Compositions; Processing; Production; Bottling and Canning.
Stimulating Beverages: Tea & Coffee - Types and Classification,Cultivation,Fresh Leaf Composition; Black Tea Manufacturing; Instant Tea Manufacturing; Biological Activity of Tea, Chemistry of Coffee; Green Coffee Processing; Conversion of Green Coffee in to Black, De-caffeination of Coffee.
Chocolate Based Drinks: Introduction, Agronomy, Technology, Cocoa-Based Beverages; Biological Activity; Chemistry and Microbiology of Cocoa.

CY-404 CHOCOLATE AND CONFECTIONERY
Introduction: History & Development; World's Annual Production; Economic Contribution; Top Ten Global Manufacturer; Recent Advancements and Future Prospects.
Nutritive Sweeteners: Types of Sugars, Honey, Sugar Alcohols, Corn & High Fructose Corn Syrup. Structure-Function Relationship of Sweeteners - Reducing Properties, Relative Sweetness, Solubility, Humectancy, Hygroscopicity& Colligative Properties.
Gelling Agents:Starch - Sources; Granular and Molecular Structure; Inclusion Complexes, Properties of Amylose and Amylopectin; Gelatinization; Retrogradation; Pasting; Gelation; Applications of Modified Starches. Pectin - Theory of Gelation; Texture, Strength & Settling Time of Pectin Gels; Applications.  Gelatin- Bloom.
Sucrose Crystallisation: Definition; Rate of Crystallization; Size of Sucrose Crystal; Effects of other Sugars and Non-sugar components of Candies; Wet Crystallization.
High Boiled Sweets:Recipes; Production Methods; Processing & Sequence of Mixing of Ingredients;~Choice of Doctor Sugars; HBS made with Corn syrup and Maltose syrup; Deposited HBS verses Cut & Wrap operation; Defects of High Boiled Sweets.
Fondant &Fudge:Beater& Kettle Fudge; Modes of Graining and Maturation Period.
Toffee: Definition & Structure; Recipes & Role of Ingredients; Defects of Caramel.
Marshmallow & Nougat: Definitions & Types; Role of Ingredients; Processing Parameters & Methods of Productions; Methods of Air Incorporation.
Chewing Gum: Types of Gums; Plasticizers; Production Methods; Defects of Chewing Gum.
Chocolate: Fermentation & Drying of Cocoa Beans; Roasting & Winnowing; Nib Grinding; Cocoa Powder & Butter; Refining, Conching& Tempering of Chocolate. Defects of Chocolate: Fat and Sugar Blooms; Polymorphism of Cocoa Butter; Bloom Development; Processing factors causing Fat and Sugar Blooms.

CY-405DAIRY INDUSTRIES
Constituents and Composition of Milk Major Components:Lipids - Chemical and Physical properties, Deterioration of Lipids; Proteins - Chemical and Physical properties; Lactose - Chemical and Physical Properties, Chemistry of Fermentation.
Minor Components:Enzymes, Non-Protein Nitrogenous Substances, Vitamins, Citric Acid, Inorganic Elements, Gases.
Properties of Milk:Acidity; Specific Gravity; Freezing Point; Boiling Point; Refractive Index; color & Flavors.
Analytical Assays Milking:Determination of Fat; Protein; Lactose and Mineral Content; Adulterants. Milking Techniques, Advantages & Disadvantages of Machine milking,Commercial collection of Milk, Factors Influencing Composition of Milk.
Quality Evaluation
Platform Test: Organoleptic Test, Appearance; Sedimentation; Acidity; Lactometer Test; Clot on Boiling; Alcohol Test; Alizarin Alcohol Test.
Raw milk Quality tests:Sediment Test; Acidity Test; Standard Plate Count; Direct Microscopic Count; Dye Reduction Test; Abnormal Milk; Antibiotic Milk; Detection of Adulteration in milk.
Processing of Milk:Supply Chain System for Handling & Storage of Milk; Clarification & De-aeration of Milk, Milk Pasteurization &Equipments; HTST and UHT Technologies; Phosphates Test; Theorization; Homogenization, Separation of Fat, Standardization, Cleaning of Dairy Equipments; Plant Hygiene & Sanitation.
Milk Products: Important Microorganisms; Fermented Products - Yogurt, Ripened Cheese, Cultured Butter Milk; Fatty Products - Butter, Butter oil, Ghee; Condensed and Dry Milk - Milk Powder, Condensed or Evaporated milk; Dairy Dessert Products - Ice Cream, Puddings and Related Products; Quality Control in Dairy Products.

CY-406 FATS AND OILS
Introduction:Sources of Oils & Fats; General Uses; Classification of Lipids; Structure and Nomenclature of Fat; Chemical Compositions.
Extraction: Methods of Oil Extraction from Seeds and Fruits; Expeller & Screw Press; Solvent extraction; Rendering - Wet & Dry Rendering.
Processing:Refining Methods; Physical and Chemical Refining; De-gumming; Neutralization; Bleaching; Deodorization; Fractionation; Winterization; Hydrogenation; Interesterification; Esterification; Refining Efficiency; Refining By-products; Soap Stock; Processing & Refining of different Oils.
Characteristics of Oil & Fats: Physical & Chemical Characteristics of Oils and Fats.
Spoilage:Oxidative and Hydrolytic Rancidity; Causes & Inhibition.
Industrial Fats:Frying Oil; Shortenings; Margarine and Mayonnaise
Additives & Processing Aids:Antioxidants used in Edible Oils; Potential Hazards of Approved Antioxidants; Color Agents used in Edible Oils and Fats; Natural Identical Colors.

CY-407Fermentation INDUSTRIES
Introduction:Microbial Potentials for Biotransformation - Respiration, Fermentation; Fermentation Based upon State of Raw Material - Surface Fermentation, Submerged Fermentation~ Solid State Fermentation; Fermentation Based Upon Nutrition Supply And Product Recovery - Batch Fermentation, Continuous Fermentation, Single Organism Mediated Fermentation, Homo & Hetero-Fermentation, Mixed Fermentation; Saccharification; Malt; Brewing; Calculations For Growth Curve; Line Weaver-Burk Curve; Biomass; Product  Yield; Cost Calculations.
Up streamProcessing:Primary& Secondary Screening; Stock Cultures; Storage; Strain Improvement by DNA & Non-DNA-Recombination Techniques; Fermentation Media; Medium Formulation as per Requirements; Medium Processing - Asepsis Vs Sterilization in Different Situations; Common Industrial Problems Related To Up Stream Processing & their Preventions.
Instrumentation for Fermentation: Fermentor Designs and Operations; Fluid Rheology & Thermodynamics; Down Stream Processing; Common Industrial Challenges of this Area.
Fermentation Products:Alcoholic Fermentation; Acetic Acid Production; Cheese Fermentation; Koji Formation; Soya Sauce; Single Cell Protein; SauerKraut; Pigment Production from Microorganisms; Fermented Meat Products; New Product Design & Innovation.

CY-408  Meat, Poultry & Egg
Meat And Poultry:Composition of Meat; Microscopic Structure of Skeletal Muscle Fibers; Types of Tissues; Types of Muscle Fiber & Difference between Red and White Muscle Fiber; Postmortem Changes in Meat; Study on effects of Postmortem changes on Quality of Meat; Eating Quality of meat and its Measurement, Meat Preservation by Pre-cooking, Irradiation Refrigeration, Drying & Dehydration; Meat Pigment; Canning of Meat Products, Fermented Meat Products- Salami & Sausages; Packaging of Meat and Meat Products, Non-meat Ingredients and their Functions in Meat Products, Cooking Methods of Meat, Comparison of different types of Cooking Methods, By-products & their Utilization.
Egg: Composition and Structure of Egg; Storage of Egg; Functional Properties of Egg; Quality Parameters of Egg, Quality Measurement; Processing of Egg, Preservation Techniques; Egg Powders & Other Products.

CY-409 Agrochemical Industry
Pesticides: Classification of pesticides; Formulation and toxicity of pesticides; Future trends of pest control; Control of weeds; Household agrochemicals; Plant growth regulators and background chemistry; Hazards associated with the use of agrochemicals and environmental aspects.
Fertilizers: Importance of chemical fertilizers; Classification of chemical fertilizers; Manufacture and chemistry involved in the production of variousfertilizers i.e. Urea, Single Super phosphate (SSP), Triple super phosphate (TSP), Nitrophos (NP), Diammoniun phosphate (DAP), Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), Ammonium nitrate (AN), Ammonium sulphate (AS), Zinc sulphate (ZS) and Complex fertilizers.

CY-410Surface Coating Industry
Raw materials for paints and pigments; Classification and properties of surface-coating constituents; Classification and manufacture of pigments; Production of paints, varnishes, distempers, enamals and lacquers; Chemistry involved in the drying phenmena of paints; Drying oils for paint and classification of drying oils.

CY-411 Sugar Industry
Introduction, juice extraction, production of raw sugar and crystallization of cane sugar refining  (clarification, filtration, decolorization, recrystallizaion, centrifugation, drying and conditioning).

CY-412Pulp and paper Industry
Introduction, types of pulping (mechanical pulping, semi chemical pulping, chemical, solvent pulping and secondary fiber pulping). Bleaching of wood pulp.Manufacture and processing (beating and refining, filling and loading, sizing, sheet forming, pressing and drying).
CY-413Leather and Rubber Industries
Leather Industry: Introduction and uses, Flow sheet of leather, Raw materials, chemicals (pre-tanning, tanning and finishing), Pre- tanning process, Tanning process, Wet Finishing and dry finishing process.
Rubber Industry
Introduction, natural rubber extraction, coagulation, rubber compounding, types of synthetic rubber and synthesis of styrene-butadiene rubber (monomer production and polymer production).

CY-414SOAPS, DETERGENTS AND COSMETIC CHEMISTRY
Soaps and Detergents:Introuction of soap, Raw materials for the manufacture of soap, Batch Kettle process, flow diagram and details, Monasavon process, Delaval process, sharpless process, introduction to detergent, Raw materials for the manufacture detergents, classification, examples of cationic, anionic, nonionic and amphoteric detergents and their action with water binders, opacifying agents, flavors, moisturizers of soap industries,  Chemistry involved in the production of soap and detergents; Action of builders, additives brighteners and surfactants; Cleansing action of soaps; Effect of acidic species and hard water on soap; Production of transparent soap.
Cosmetic Chemistry: Introduction to the preparations for skin care & cosmetic products, Preparation of Creams, Lotions and Sun-block  preparations. Medicated creams.Oil in water & moisturizing preparations. Depletory creams.
Preparation of Tooth Pastes and Tooth Powders, mouth wash and Gargles.
Preparation of Hair Dyes, Hair creams, Shampoos, other hair softening and
conditioningproducts.
Preparation of Health care products; Disinfectants, odour masking products and deodorizers.
CY-415Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Transformation of Chemicals into Drugs: Physiochemical Properties In Relation To Biological Action: Complex events between drug administration and drug action. Solubility, partition coefficient and drug-receptor interactions.
Factors Influencing Dosage Formations:Disintegration, dissolution and absorption of drugs, their pre-requisites, Effective blood level, Placebo effects, MIC values etc. and Drug-drug interactions.
Drug Metabolism:Factors influencing metabolism of drugs. Site of metabolism, Metabolic changes in GI tract, Types of metabolic reactions and Reactions based on functional groups.
Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR):Chemical structure in relation to biological activity of molecules, stereochemical factors, prodrugs, isosters and pharmacophoregroups.Synthesis, physical and chemical properties, mode of action, SAR studies and toxicity of the following drugs.
Sulfa drugs:Sulfa drugs in current therapy (human and veterinary use).
Drugs acting on NIDDM:Sulfonylureas. Antibiotics: Penicillin and related compounds, cephalosporins, tetracyclines chloramphenicol and quinolones. Antiviral agents and antineoplastic agents. Histamines and antihistamines: H1 and H2-receptor antagonists, development of H3 receptors and proton pump inhibitors.
Anti-malarial drugs, Analgesics (peripheral as well as centrally acting), local anesthetics
Recent trends in drug development:Quantitative structure activity relationship (OSAR), computer models and stimulations with examples including a case study of at least one drug.

CY-416 Metallurgy
Physical Metallurgy:Nature and properties of metals and alloys; Structural aspects of Solidification and solid-phase transformations in binary systems; Thermal analysis; Macroscopical and microscopical examination: Defects in crystals, and the mechanisms of deformation and fracture; Phase equilibria in tertiary system: Departure from equilibrium condition; Electron theory of metals; Physical thermodynamics: The constitution microstructure.
Crystallography: Element of crystallography; Crystal lattice, crystal planes and simple metallic structures: Binding forces in molecules and crystals; The chemical bond and the metallic bond-binding energies in solids; Atomic sizes in crystals; The structure of alloys; Atomic arrangements in alloy; The factors affecting alloy formation: The response of single crystals of deformation; Slip planes and directions; Atomic movements in slip; Critical shear stress; Twinning; Atom movements in twinning, Brittle cleaverage; Plastic flow in polycrystalline material; Elements of dislocation theory; Behavior of metal at high temperatures; Creep; Oxidation and Scaling.
Process Metallurgy: Ores and minerals; Dressing of minerals; Reduction; Fluxes: Slags, Smelting, roasting, and smelting furnaces; Blast furnaces; Reverberatory furnaces; Electric furnaces; Pyrometry; Composition and properties of refractory materials used for bricks, Crubcibles and lining of furnaces; Metallurgy of iron; Iron ores and minerals; Chemistry of smelting of iron ores; Acid and basic fluxes.

INTERDISCIPLINARY COURSES

HS-104  FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH
Listening: Types of Listening, Problems in listening and coping strategies, Listening skills, sub skills, Practice in Listening, Note taking: Techniques for taking notes from lectures, from books, Note taking in different forms paragraphs, points, figures, processes, tables, graphs etc. Vocabulary development: Enhancing current vocabulary to reflect a better usage of words in spoken and written language, Tips/ strategies in vocabulary enhancement, Practice in vocabulary development. Reading: Reading skills, sub skills, Reading comprehension levels, Reading strategies, Reading practice through variety of reading texts and comprehension exercises, Beyond reading[ outline, précis, speech and presentation].Writing: Process of Writing, Informal Writing strategies, Writing correctly: sentence structure and punctuation, error correction, Paragraphs: Structure, types, topic and the topic sentence, and unity, adequate development and coherence in paragraphs, Essays: Types,  Five paragraphs long essays, and structure ( thesis statement and the paragraphs),Short Reports: Structure, format, and types ( informational and analytical),Letters: elements, style, formatting (digital letter writing), organization and structure of the letter, and types (Routine requests and intimation, invitation, thank you and condolence letters etc.)The Elements of International Style: A Guide to writing correspondence, reports, Technical Documents, and internet pages for a global Audience by Edmond H Weiss.

MT-111 CALCULUS
Set and Functions: Define rational, irrational and real numbers; rounding off a numerical value to specified value to specified number of decimal places or significant figures; solving quadratic, and rational inequalities in involving modulus with graphical representation; Definition of set, set operations, Venn diagrams, DeMorgan’s laws, Cartesian product, Relation, Function and their types (Absolute value, greatest integer and combining functions). Graph of some well-known functions. Limit of functions an d continuous and discontinuous functions with graphical representation.
Propositional Logic:Definition of Proposition, Statement and Argument, Logical Operators, Simple and Compound proposition, various types of connectives, Truth table, tautology, Contradiction, Contingency & Logical equivalence.
Boolean Algebra:Definition, Boolean function, duality, some basic theorems & their proofs, two valued Boolean algebra, Truth functions, Canonical sum of product form, Digital logic Gates & Switching circuit designs.
Complex Number:Arganddiagram, De Moivre formula, root of polynomial equations, curve and regions in the complex plane, standard functions and their inverses (exponential, circular and Hyperbolic functions).
Differential Calculus:Differentiation and Successive differentiation and its application: Leibnitz theorem. Taylor and Maclaurin theorems with remainders in Cauchy and Lagrange form, power series. Taylor and Maclaurin series, L Hopitals rule, extreme values of a function of one variable using first and second derivative test, asymptotes of a function, curvature and radius of curvature of a curve, partial differentiation, exact differential and its application in computing errors, extreme values of a function of two variables with and without constraints. Solution of non-linear equation, using Newton Raphson method.
Integral Calculus:Indefinite integrals and their computational techniques, reduction formulae, definite integrals and their convergence. Beta and Gamma functions and their identities, applications of integration. Centre of pressure and depth of centre of pressure.
Solid Geometry:Coordinate Systems in three dimensions. Direction cosines and ratios, vector equation of a straight line, plane and sphere, curve tracing of a function of two and three variables, Surfaces of revolutions, transformations (Cartesian to polar & cylindrical).

 

 

HS-105PAKISTAN STUDIES
An Outline of Emergence of Pakistan:
A brief historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent.War of Independent 1857 and Aftermatch. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Development of Two Nation Theory. Formation of Muslim League.LucknowPact.Khilafat& Non-Cooperation Movement.Political Events from 1924 to 1937.Pakistan Resolution - Struggle for Pakistan from 1940 to 1947.Emergence of Pakistan.Land of Pakistan: Geophysical conditions, Territorial situation and its importance, Natural Resources - Mineral and Water. Constitutional Process: Early effects to make constitution - Problems and issues. Constitution of 1956 and its abrogation.The constitution of 1962 and its annulment. Constitutional and Political Crisis of 1971; The constitution of 1973. Recent constitutional developments.Post Independence Development: Education in Pakistan; Planning & Development in the Field of Education. Development of Science and Technology with special reference to Engineering and Architecture.Brief survey of Pakistan Economy: Industrial and Agricultural Development. Internal and external trade.Economic planning and prospects.Cultural Development in Pakistan: Definition, Contents and Contributing factors in culture, Development of Art, Philosophy and literature. Foreign Policy: Relations with neighbors, Super powers and the Muslim World. 

HS-127 PAKISTAN STUDIES (FOR FOREIGNERS)
Land of Pakistan: Land & People –Strategic importance – Important beautiful sights – Natural resources (some portion of economics of Pakistan) A brief Historical Background: A brief historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent – British rule & its impacts – Indian reaction – Two nation theory Origin and development – Factors leading towards the demand of a separate Muslim state – Creation of Pakistan. Government & Political Development in Pakistan: Constitution of Pakistan – A brief outline – Governmental structure Federal and Provincial – Local Government Institutions – Political History a brief account. Pakistan & the Muslim World: Relations with the Muslim countries. Language and Culture: Origins of Urdu Language  - Influence of Arabic & Persian on Urdu Language & Literature  - A short history of Urdu literature  - Dominant Culture features.

EL-102 BASIC ELECTRONICS
PN Junction Diode: Introduction. PN junction diode, Unbiased diode, Barrier potential, Diffusion & drift current, Forward & reverse bias, Minority carrier current. Diode models: Ideal, practical & complete, Diode characteristics, Load line, Diode current equation. Capacitive effect on diode operation at high frequency, Transient current, Temperature effect on diode operation.Diode applications; Rectifier, Switch, Communication, Wave-shaping, Voltage multiplier etc.Breakdown diode, Voltage regulator, Power Supply.
FET: Field effect transistor; Device, Structure & Physical operation of the MOSFET, Current-voltage characteristics. DC analysis of MOSFET circuits, MOSFET as an amplifier and as a switch, Biasing in MOS amplifier circuits.
BJT: Physical structure & operation modes of BJT, operation in the active mode, Large-signal model. DC analysis of BIT. BJT as an amplifier, Smallsignal equivalent circuit models, Biasing techniques for discrete-circuit design. BJT as switch: Operation of npn in the cut-off & saturation modes, Basic BIT inverter.

CT-158   FUNDAMENTALS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Introduction to IT, recent advances in IT, IT systems, Development of the modern computer.Introduction to Software, data structures, coding.Programming and problem solving algorithms.Data types and representation.Basic organization of computer, Number systems.Introduction to Data communication, database, Information System and MIS, Networks and Internet concepts.

EE-114 BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Electrical Elements and Circuits: Energy and energy transfer, Electric Charge, Electric current, Potential difference & voltage, Electric power and energy, Electric circuit sources and elements, Resistance, Ohm's law, Inductance, Capacitance, Fundamental circuit laws, Kirchhoff's Laws, Direct application of fundamental laws to simple resistive networks, Introduction to node voltage and loop current methods.
Steady State AC Circuits: An introduction to periodic functions, RMS or effective, Average and maximum values of current and voltage for sinusoidal signal wave forms, The phasor method of analysis an introduction, Application of phasor methods to simple AC circuits, Power and reactive power, Maximum power conditions.
Magnetic Circuits and Transformers: Magnetic effects of electric current, Magnetic circuit concepts, Magnetization curves, Characteristics of magnetic materials, Magnetic circuits with DC excitation, Magnetically induced voltages, Self inductance magnetic circuits with AC excitation, Hysteresis and Eddy current losses, Introduction to transformer the Idea! Transformer.
Electromechanical Energy Conversion: Basic principles, Generated voltage, Electromagnetic torque, Interaction of magnetic fields, Alternating current generators, Commutator actions, DC machine, direct current generators, Electric motors, Losses and efficiency, Machine application considerations.
MT-223  ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS & FOURIER SERIES

1stOrder Differential Equations: Basic concept, Formation of differential equations and solution of differential equations by direct integration and by separating the variables, Homogeneous equations and equations reducible to homogeneous from, Linear differential equations of the order and equations reducible to the linear form, Bernoulli's equations and orthogonal trajectories, Application in relevant Engineering.
2nd and Higher Orders Equations:Special types of 2nd order differential equations with constant coefficients and their solutions, the operator D; Inverse operator l/D, solution of differential by operator D methods, Special cases, Cauchy's differential equations; Simultaneous differential equations, Simple application of differential equations in relevant Engineering.
Partial Differential Equation: Basic concepts and formation of partial differential equations, Linear homogeneous partial differential equations and relations to ordinary differential equations, Solution of first order linear and special types of second and higher order differential equations, D’ Alembert's solution of the wave equation and two dimensional wave equations, Lagrange's solution: Various standard forms.
Lap lace Integral & Transformation: Definition, Laplace transforms of some elementary functions, First translation or shifting theorem, Second translation or shifting theorem, Change of scale property, Laplace transform of the nth order derivative, Initial and final value theorem Laplace transform of integrals, Laplace transform of functions tn F(t) and F(t)/ t, Laplace transform of periodic function, Evaluation of integrals, Definition of inverse Laplace transform and inverse transforms, Convolution theorem, Solutions of ordinary differential using Laplace transform.
Fourier series:Periodic functions and expansion of periodic functions in Fourier series and Fourier coefficients, Expansion of function with arbitrary periods, Odd and even functions and their Fourier series, Half range expansions of Fourier series, “DFT and FFT, Fourier Spectrum".

MT-331  Probability and Statistics
Introduction: Types of data & variables, presentation to data, object, classifications, Tabulation, Frequency distribution & their types, Graphical representation, Simple & Multiple Bar diagrams, Pie-Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curves.
Measure of Central Tendency and Dispersion: Statistical Averages, Median, Mode, Quartiles, Range, Moments, Skewness& Kurtosis, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation, Variance & its coefficient.
Probability: Set Theory, Basic concepts, Permutation & Combination, Definitions of probability Applying set theory to probability, Probability axioms, some consequences of the axioms, Conditional probability, Independence,Baye’s rule.
Random Variables: Introduction, Discrete & Continuous random variables, Random Sequences and transformations, Probability distribution, Probability density function, Distribution function, Mathematical expectations, Moment Generating Function (M.G.F.).
Probability Distributions: Introduction, Discrete probability distributions, Binomial, Poisson, Hypergeometric& Negative binomial distributions. Continuous probability distribution, Uniform, Exponential, Gamma, Weibull& Normal distributions & their practical significance.
Sampling and Sampling Distributions: Introduction, Population, Parameter & Statistic, Objects of Sampling, Questionnaire Designing, Sampling Techniques,Sampling& Non-Sampling Errors, Random Sampling, Probability and Non Probability Sampling, Sampling with & without replacement, Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Systematic Sampling, Cluster Sampling, Sampling Distribution of Mean, Standard Errors, Central Limit Theorem
Curve Fitting: Introduction, fitting of a first and second degree curve, fitting of exponential and logarithmic curves related problems, Principle of least squares, Introduction to Time series.
Regression and Correlation: Properties of  Least Square, Simple Linear Regression, Non Linear Regression, Multiple Regression, Estimates of Regression parameters, Confidence Limits & Test of Significance, Choice of a Regression Model, Correlation, Multiple and Partial Correlation, Coefficient of Determination.

CT-153PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Language: Definition, structures, survey of some programming languages, special and general purpose languages, data types. Comparative study by means of primitive and composite data structures, Control structures by means of expression of algorithms.

HS-205ISLAMIC STUDIES
Themetic Study of Holy Quran.Basic Islamic Believes Topics :Tauheed: Al-Ambiya-22, Al-Baqarah-163-164,  Prophethood: Al-Imran-79, Al-Huda-7 Al-Maidah-3, Here-After: Al-Hajj-5, Al-Baqarah-48, *Two Hadith, Basic Islamic Practices: Al-Mu'minun-l-ll, Amre-Bil-Ma'RoofWa-Nahi Anil MunkarThe Concept of Good & Evil. i) Importance & necessity of Da'Wat-e-Deen  Al-Imran-llO., ii) Method of Da'Wat-e-Deen. An-Nehl-125,   Al-Imran-l04 ,*Two Hadith
Unity of the Ummah: Al-Imran-l03,   Al-Hujurat-l0,   Al-Imran-64,   AI-An'am-l08 *Two Hadith, Kasb-e-Halal. : Taha-8l,  Al-A'raf-32-33,  Al-Baqarah-188  *Two Hadith,            Huquq-ul-Ibad:  i) Protcetion of Life: AI-Maidah-32,  ii) Right to Property: An-Nisa-29,  iii) Right of Respect & Dignity: AI-Hujurat-11-12, iv) Freedom of Expression: AI-Baqarah-256,  v) Right of Equality: AI-Hujurat-13 . vi) Economic Security: AI-Ma'arij-24-25, vii) Exployment Opportunity on Merit: An-Nisa-58, viii) Excession Right to Justics: An-Nisa-135,            Women Rights:  An-Nehl-97,    AI-Ahzab-35, An-Nisa-O7  Relations With Non-Muslims:                 AI-Mumtahanah-8-9, AI-Anfal-61., Last sermon of Hajj at Arafat  Translation & the important points of the sermon. Serat Life of  theHolv Prophet: Birth, Life at Makkah, Declaration of Prophethood, preaching & its difficulties migration to Madina. Brotherhood (Mawakhat) &Madinacharter.The Holy War of the prophet (Ghazwat-e-Nabawi) Hujjat-ul- Wida.          Islamic Civilization: Impacts of Islamic civilization on the sub-continent. The civilization of sub-continent before Islam.The Political, Social & Moral impacts of Islamic Civilization on sub-continent.Academic, Intellectual, Social & Cultural Impacts of Islam on the World. 
*N .B : As prescribed by UGC. The original Text & complete course plan may be obtained from the Department of Humanities.

HS-206ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR
Nature, Scope and methods of Ethics and religion.Ethical teachings of world religions.Basic Moral concepts, Right and wrong, Good and evil.An outline of Ethical systems in philosophy; Hedonism, Utilitarianism, Rationalism and Kant.Self Realization Theories, Intuitionism.Islam Moral Theory: Ethics of Quran and its philosophical basis. Ethical precepts from Quran and Hadith and promotion of moral values in Society.

HS- 301 BUSINESS& ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Business Communication Foundations: Definition of business, organization and communication, Goals, patterns, principles, channels, tools, levels, Qualities(7 C’s) and process of communication, Forms and functions of organizational communication, Communication barriers, Feedback and its types, Listening & Understanding Nonverbal Communication, International and cross cultural communication,
Communication Technologies and Techniques: Tools for digital communication, Etiquettes and ethics of using communication technologies
Communicating in Teams: Improving your performance in Teams (team communication, group dynamics, Etiquette in team settings), Making your meetings more productive (preparing for meetings, leading and participating in meetings, Meeting Notice, Agenda and minutes, Meeting simulation
Business Writing: Planning Audience Centered Business Messages & Applying the three step Writing Process, Letter and Memos (Structure and elements) Practice in writing letters and memos, Three Types of Business Messages and situations: Routine/Neutral/Positive/Good news and Goodwill Msgs, Negative/Bad News Msgs, Persuasive Msgs
Employment Communication: Resume/CV, Job application (solicited and unsolicited)
Writing Proposals and Reports: Finding and Communicating Information, Communicating Information Through Visuals,Writing effective Proposals, Short Reports ( analytical and informational reports, memo and letter reports), Formal Reports ( structure and organization)

MT-  STATISTICS-II
Statistical Inference & Hypothesis Testing: Confidence and Significance Level, Sample Size Determination, Point & Interval Estimates, Interval Estimates for Population Mean, Population Standard Deviation, & Population Proportion, Type I, Type II Errors, One Tail & Two tail tests, Tests concerning Means, Proportions & Variances, Chi-square tests.
Experimental Design: Comparing Mean test, Analysis of Variance(ANOVA), One Way equal and unequal size, Two Way ANOVA, Complete Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), Latin Square Design (LSD), Tests for the Equality of several variances, Multiple Range test.
Multiple Regressions: Fitting the Multiple Linear Regression Model, Goodness of fit of the Model, Statistical Inference for Multiple Regression, ANOVA table for Regression, Testing subset of Parameters, Regression Diagnostics, Multicollinearity, Polynomial Regression, Variable Selection Methods, Best Subset Regression, and Adequacy of the Model.
Nonparametric Statistics: Introduction, Nonparametric tests, Signed-Rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Rank Correlation Coefficient.
Control Charts: Properties of the distribution of sample means, Sample range estimation of standard deviation, Chance and assignable causes, Control charts for mean & range, Control charts for mean & standard deviation, Control charts for proportion defective & defects per assembly, Tests of significance to compute confidence limits.
Acceptance Sampling: Introduction, OC curve, Consumer & producer risks, AQL & LTPD, sampling errors, Acceptance sampling for continuous production, Acceptance by variables, Single double, & sequential sampling.
Quality, Reliability, & Maintainability: Definitions, Management of quality control, Total quality control, Taguchi method, Economic aspects of quality decisions, Process capability & variability analysis, Various aspects of life testing, Reliability &maintainability, Introduction to ISO 9000.

ME 203 FLUID MECHANIC
Introduction: Liquids and gases, properties of fluids, Force, mass and weight, Units and Conversions.
Fluid Statics:Basic equations, pressure forces on surfaces, Pressure vessels, piping, Buoyancy, pressure measuring devices. Pressure in accelerated rigid body motions.General mass balance for single and multi -component fluids.
Bernoulli's equation and its applications; diffusers and sudden expansion: Torricelli's equation, cavitation and unsteady flows.
Fluid Friction:Reynolds Experiment; laminar and turbulent flows; Friction factor method, fitting loses, enlargements and contractions, friction in non-circular channels, economic pipe diameter, flow around submerged objects.

Momentum:Momentum balances; steady flow applications, relative velocities, starting and stopping flows, angular momentum balances. One dimensional high velocity gas flows, shock waves, choking flow, ideal gas considerations, nozzles and diffusers. Dimensional Analysis: Bukingham -Pi Theorem; Reynold's law of Similitude.

CH-206 THERMODYNAMICS
Chemical thermodynamics: Scope and definitions; Isolated, closed and open systems; Intensive and extensive properties; State and functions of state;
First law; Internal energy U; Enthalpy H; Reversibility; Calorimetry; Enthalpies of formation and reaction; Bond dissociation energy and mean bond energy; Dependence of U and H on temperature; First law as applied to ideal gases; Isothermal; Isometric; isobaric; polytropic and adiabatic processes involving an ideal gas; P-V-T relationships for non ideal gases.
Second law; Entropy; Equilibrium and observable change; Changes in entropy with changes in P, V, and T. Helmholtz function A. Gibbs function (free energy) G. Fundamental equations for closed systems. Maxwell relationships.properties of mixtures of ideal gases.G for ideal and non-ideal gases.Fugacity.Partial molar quantities.
Chemical potential.Excess Thermodynamic Functions.Third law of Equilibrium (reversible) and spontaneous (irreversible) change.
Phase equilibria: Phase rule; One component systems; Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations. Two component systems.Liquid-vapor equilibria.Ideal and Non-ideal solutions; Composition of vapor in equilibrium with liquid; Azeotropes.Mixing.Liquid-solid equilibria.Eutectic.Compoundformation.Solid solutions.
Chemical equilibria; equilibrium constants for gas phase reactions. Temperature dependence of Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constants; factors affecting degree of conversions, condensed phases, solution equilibria, fuel cells, liquification.
MM-301  CORROSION: PROTECTION AND PREVENTION
General concepts of corrosion applied to materials, corrosive environments, atmosphere, water, chemicals, gases, general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, oxygen concentration cell, atmospheric corrosion, chemical corrosion, corrosion in gas, types of scale, mechanism of scale protection, oxide, defect structure, oxidation rates, high temperature gas reactions, localized corrosion, pit and crevice corrosion. Mechanically assisted corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen damage, corrosion in ceramics and plastics, atmosphere water, chemical corrosion, corrosion prevention and protection. Chemical inhibiters, environmental control, anodic and cathodic protection, mechanical protection, coatings, anodizing, painting, corrosion resistant materials, corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, case studies.
Corrosion of metals: simple electrochemical theory, polarisation curves, activation and concentration polarisation; Evans diagrams, Passivity, pitting, localised corrosion, Common problems: galvanic corrosion, differential aeration, crevice corrosion, Corrosion Prevention: Cathodic protection, anodic protection, inhibitors, Paint; modes of protection, inhibitive and metallic pigments, Metal coatings; action, methods of application, Anodising of aluminium. Design and materials selection.

CH-306 CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL
Incentives for chemical process control. Feedback and feed-forward control configurations. Design of controllers.
Mathematical modeling of dynamic processes.Linearization of nonlinear systems. Laplace transforms. Solution of linear ordinary differential equations using Laplace transforms.
First-order systems, second-order systems, higher-order systems, time delays, inverse response systems, transfer functions.
Components of a control loop. Closed-loop transfer functions. Transient response of simple closed-loop control systems. Types of controllers.Stability of controller operation.Frequency response methods.Nyquist Stability Theorem.
Feedback control.Feed-forward control. Cascade Control. Multivariable control systems.

 

CH-405  INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT

Introduction: Accident and loss statistics, public perception of chemical industry, the accident process, some significant disasters as case studies; Toxicology: how toxicants enter and are eliminated from biological organisms, effects of toxicants, dose versus response models, threshold limit values.
Industrial Hygiene: Government regulations, identification and evaluation and control of various exposures in chemical industry. Fires and explosions: fire triangle, flammability characteristics of liquids and vapors. Design to prevent fires and explosions. Hazard identification and risk assessment, Accident investigations and case histories.Forms of maintenance, scheduling of maintenance.ComputerizedMaintenance.Nondestructive testing techniques. Forms of corrosion, prevention and inhibition,; Preparation for startup and shutdown. Preventive and predictive maintenance.

CH-410 WATER PURIFICATION PROCESSES
Description of methods of water purification and treatment. Fundamentals involved in Multi Stage Flash Distillation, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis etc. Study of properties of water and aqueous solutions.Detailed discussion and analysis of design maintenance, energy requirements and economics of the major process of purification.

CH-411  ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL
Introduction, hydrological cycle, water quality parameters, acid/base chemistry, reaction kinetics, mass flux of pollutants, water quality management, water treatment processes, coagulation and flocculation, softening, settling and Sedimentation, filtration.
Waste water treatment, Wastewater Characteristics, Effluent Standards,
Primary Treatment (Screening, Communiting, Grit Removal, Flow Measurement, Primary Sedimentation), Secondary Treatment, Activated Sludge Treatment, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), Disinfection of Effluents, Growth and Food Utilization, Attached-Culture System.
Sludge Treatment and Disposal, Advanced Waste Water Treatment, Nutrient Removal, Solid Removal, Waste water Disposal and Reuse.
Air pollutants and standards, modeling air pollutants dispersions, air pollution control devices
Solids waste management, hazardous wastes.

CH-406  PETROLEUM REFINING & PETROCHEMICALS
Origin & formation of petroleum, Composition of petroleum, Petroleum processing, Crude classification, Crude evaluation, Thermal properties of crude, Crude analysis, Crude fraction properties, Pretreatment of crude, Distillation of petroleum (ADU & VDU), Pipe still heater of crude, Arrangement of towers, Treatment techniques, Thermal and catalytic processes Petrochemicals: Methanol, Formaldehyde, Ethylene production by steam cracking of naphtha, Ethylene dichloride, Vinyl chloride monomer, Vinyl acetate monomer, Ethylene oxide, Acetaldehyde Propylene, Acrylonitrile, Propylene oxide, MTBE, Butadiene, BTX separation, Benzene by dealkylation of toluene.