1 2 3 4
 

BAchelor Programme

This programme is specially designed with emphasis on the application of scientific knowledge on industrial problemssss.

Studying industrial chemistry is excellent to choose a wide variety of useful, interesting and rewarding careers. The list of career possibilities for people with training in industrial chemistry is long and varies. Graduates find employment in government sector, research and development institutes, production, pharmaceutical, dairy, fermentation, beverages, fertilizer, paint, pulp and paper, tanning, oil and petroleum, cosmetics industries just to name a few.

The BSIC Programme is of four years. The first and second year of the programme is comprised of some core courses on chemistry, basic sciences and social sciences as per the guidelines of HEC. In the third year courses on separation techniques, spectroscopy, natural products, unit processes, industrial stoichiometry, nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry is conducted. In fourth year the students can select one specialization by choosing four elective courses of their interest and carry out a project on his/her area of specialization.

BAchelor COURSES

Industrial Chemistry

FIRST YEAR

Fall Semester

Spring Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr.

Total

Th

Pr.

Total

CY-113

Inorganic Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-120

Analytical Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-114

Organic Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-117

Physical Chemistry I

3

0

3

CY-118

Industrial Chemistry Lab-I

0

1

1

CY-119

Industrial Chemistry Lab-II

0

1

1

HS-104

Functional English

3

0

3

HS-105/ HS-127

Pakistan Studies/ Pakistan Studies (for Foreigners)

2

0

2

PH-123

General Physics-I

2

1

3

EE-119

Fundamental of Electrical Engineering

3

1

4

MT-173

Calculus

3

0

3

CT-158

Fundamental of Information Technology

2

0

2

 

 

 

 

 

PH-124

General Physics-II

2

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECOND YEAR

 

Fall Semester

 

Spring Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr.

Total

Th

Pr.

Total

CY-205

Inorganic Chemistry II

3

0

3

CY-209

Analytical Chemistry II

3

0

3

CY-208

Organic Chemistry II

3

0

3

CY-210

Physical Chemistry II

3

0

3

CY-206

Industrial Chemistry Lab-III

0

1

1

CY- 207

Industrial Chemistry Lab-IV

0

1

1

HS-205/ HS-209

Islamic Studies/ Ethical Behavior (for Non-Muslims)

2

0

2

HS-201

Oral Communication

2

1

3

MT-223

Ordinary Differential Equations & Fourier Series

3

0

3

CH-202

Fluid Mechanics-I

3

1

4

MT-331

Probability & Statistics

3

0

3

EL-102

Basic Electronics

3

1

4

CT-153

Programming Languages

2

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THIRD YEAR

 

Fall Semester

 

Spring Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr.

Total

Th

Pr.

Total

CY-313

Polymer Science

3

0

3

CY-404

Separation Techniques

3

0

3

CY-305

Industrial Stoichiometry

3

0

3

CY-303

Reaction Kinetics Unit

3

0

3

CY-310

Industrial Chemistry Lab V

0

1

1

CY-308

Processes Industrial

3

0

3

HS-301

Business & Organizational Commination

3

0

3

CY-311

Industrial Chemistry Lab -VI

0

1

1

CH-206

Thermodynamics

3

1

4

CY-314

Natural Products

3

0

3

CY-312

Spectroscopy

3

0

3

CY-315

Nuclear & Radiation Chemistry

3

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

CH-203

Chemical Process Industries

3

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOURTH YEAR

 

Fall Semester

 

Spring Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr.

Total

Th

Pr.

Total

CY-402

Environmental Chemistry

3

0

3

CY-416

Nanotechnology

3

0

3

CH-405

Industrial Safety & Maintenance Management

2

1

3

##-##

Elective-III

-

-

-

##-##

Elective-I

-

-

-

##-##

Elective-IV

-

-

-

##-##

Elective-II

-

-

-

CY-415

Industrial Chemistry Project

0

6

6

CY-415

Industrial Chemistry Project*

0

6

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elective Courses

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Th

Pr.

Total

Th

Pr.

Total

CY-403

Beverage Technology

3

0

3

CY-411

Surface Coatings

3

0

3

CY-406

Fat & Oil Processing

3

0

3

CY-413

Surfactants and Cosmetics

3

0

3

CY-414

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

3

0

3

CH-406

Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals

3

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

CY-408

Polymer Technology

3

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

CH-407

Industrial Organization & Management

2

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CY-113 Inorganic Chemistry I
Atomic Structure: Development of theories for atomic structure, Discovery of fundamental subatomic particles, Bohr’s model for Hydrogen, Line spectrum, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Quantum numbers and their significance, Wave Mechanics, Wave properties of the matter, the Schrödinger equation.
Periodic Table: Electronic configuration and periodic table, Periodicity, Group trends in atomic and ionic radii, Ionization energies, Electro negativity, Ionization potential, Electron affinity, Oxidation potentials, Electrode potential, Magnetic properties, Para and diamagnetisms.
Chemical Bonding in s and p Block Elements: Effective atomic number and shielding constant, Types of chemical bonds, Ionic bond, covalent bond, The concept of hybridization and its applications, Writing wave equations of hybrid orbitals, Lattice energy and Born Haber cycle of Ionic compounds, Related numerical.
s- and p- Block Elements Periodicity in s- and p- block elements, Allotropy in C, S, and P. Oxidation states with reference to elements in unusual and rare oxidation states like carbides and nitrides), inert pair effect, diagonal relationship and anomalous behaviour of first member of each group.
Compounds of s- and p- Block Elements Hydrides and their classification (ionic, covalent and interstitial), structure and properties with respect to stability of hydrides of p- block elements. Concept of multicentre bonding (diborane). Structure, bonding and their important properties like oxidation/reduction, acidic/basic nature of the following compounds and their applications in industrial, organic and environmental chemistry. Hydrides of nitrogen (NH3, N2H4, N3H, NH2OH) Oxoacids of P, S and Cl. Halides and oxohalides: PCl3, PCl5, SOCl2 and SO2Cl2
Industrial Gases and Inorganic Chemicals
(a) Industrial Gases: Large scale production, uses, storage and hazards in handling of the following gases: oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon, helium, hydrogen, acetylene, carbon monoxide, chlorine, fluorine, sulphur dioxide and phosgene.
(b) Inorganic Chemicals: Manufacture, application, analysis and hazards in handling the following chemicals: hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, caustic soda, common salt, borax, bleaching powder, sodium thiosulphate, hydrogen peroxide, potash alum, chrome alum, potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate.

CY-114  Organic Chemistry I
Basic Concepts: Bonding, Reactivity of organic compounds, Oxidation states of carbon, Structure and stability of reactive intermediates, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, Types of reactions, Factors effecting reactions (reaction mechanism
Isomerism: Structural, Stereo, Geometrical and Optical isomerism
Chemistry Of Alkanes And Cycloalkanes: Nomenclature, Natural occurrence and Physical properties, Preparation and Reactions of alkane and cycloalkane.
Chemistry of Alkenes And Alkyne: Nomenclature, Natural occurrence, Physical properties, acidity, Preparations and reactions of alkenes and alkynes.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature, Aromaticity, Preparation and Reactions of aromatic compounds, Electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene, Heterocyclic aromatic   compounds (5 and 6 membered), Importance in pharmaceutical industry.
Alkyl Halides: Nomenclature, Classification and physical properties, Preparation of alkyl halides.
Important Industrial Organic Chemicals:
Large scale production and derived products of the following important industrial chemicals: Ethene, Butanes, Butadiene, BTX Chemistry (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene.

CY-120 ANALYTICAL Chemistry I
Introduction: Introduction and scope of analytical chemistry, Major steps in total chemical analysis, a general survey of all analytical methods.
Errors in Chemical Analysis: Evaluation of reliability of analytical data, Significant figures, Selection of central best value from a set of data, Precision and accuracy, Methods to measure precision, Classification of errors, Distribution of data from replicate measurements, Comparison of results, Student ‘t’ test, Modern trends in quality control.
Gravimetric Methods of Analysis: combustion analysis, Precipitation process: solubility, filterability, purity, composition of the product, scope of gravimetric analysis, calculation of gravimetric analysis.
Acid Bases and Buffers: Acid Base strength, pH and pOH,  buffer solution and buffer capacity.
Volumetric Methods of Analysis:  Titration calculations, precipitation titration, acid base titration, acid base indicators, Primary standards for acids and bases, acid base titrations in non-aqueous solutions, redox titration, end point location in acid base titrations, oxidation-reduction titrants, non-aqueous redox titrations, complexation titrations, titrations for complexation titrations, complexation titration curves, end point location in complexation titrations.
Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis: Overview of spectroscopy, basic components of spectroscopic instrumentation, Absorbance of electromagnetic Radiation, Transmittance and absorbance, Beer’s Law, Limitations to Beer’s Law, Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometery: instrumentation, Quantitative and qualitative applications. Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry: instrumentation, Quantitative and qualitative applications.
Calibrationss and Standardizations: Reagents used as standards, Single point vs multiple point standardizations, External standards, Standard Additions, Internal Standards, Linear regressions and calibration curves.
Analysis of Real Samples: Sampling, Digestion of samples by dry and wet ashing with special reference to Kjeldahl’s method for nitrogen determination, Fluxes.

CY-117  PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I
Introduction to Phase Equilibria: Phase, component and degree of freedom, Phase rule and its applications, One component system (water, carbon dioxide), Polymorphism, Enantiotropy, Two component systems (sulphur, Pb, Ag system),Vapour pressure diagram, Temperature composition diagrams, Azeotropes, Liquid-liquid phase, Liquid-solid phase.
Chemical Dynamics in Gases: The Postulates of kinetic theory of Gases, Translational K.E. of molecules, kinetic theory of temperature, Energy units for PV and RT, Mean Square velocity & Root mean square velocity, Graham's law of effusion, Distribution of molecular velocities, Vander Waal's equation.
Kinetic Theory of Matter: Theories pertaining to distribution of energies into different groups, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law for energies of molecular systems, Method for the determination of Avogadro’s number.
Solution: The properties of mixtures/solutions, Concentration terms, Thermodynamic description of mixtures, Partial molar quantities, Chemical potential of liquids, Ideal solutions, Raoult's Law, The properties of solutions: liquid mixtures, Colligative properties, Common features of colligative properties, Elevation of boiling point, Depression of freezing point, Solubility, Osmosis and Osmotic pressure, Solvent and solute activity, Vant Hoff's theory of dilute solutions.
Conductance: Theory of electrolytes, Electrolytic conduction, Conductance, Specific, Equivalent and molar conductance, Circuit of conductivity meter, Measurements of cell constant, Arrhenius theory of ionization, Debye Hackle theory, Asymmetry or relaxation effect, Solvent effect, Electrophoretic effect, Debye Huckel Onsagar equation, Ion pair, Ion triplet formation, Transport numbers, Ion motilities and their calculations, Types of conductometric titrations, Applications of conductance in relation to Aa & Ka for weak and strong electrolyte, Determination of absolute ionic motilities, Solubility of sparingly soluble salts, Kw, Basicity of an organic acid, Speed ratio by transport number, Advantages of conductometric titration over volumetric titration.
Electrochemistry: Introduction to electrochemical processes: Redox Reactions, Electrode potential of a cell, Nernst theory of electrode potential, Laws of electrolysis, Characteristics of working cell, Corrosion, Rate of corrosion, Inhibition of corrosion, Electrical currents in ionic solutions:

CY-205 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II
Transition Elements (3d series) General group trends with special reference to electronic configuration, variable valency, colour, magnetic and catalytic properties, ability to form complexes and stability of various oxidation states (Latimer diagrams) for Mn, Fe and Cu.
Lanthanides and actinides: Electronic configurations, Oxidation states, colour, magnetic properties, lanthanide contraction, separation of lanthanides (ionexchange method only).
Coordination Chemistry Valency Bond Theory (VBT): Inner and outer orbital complexes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu (coordination numbers 4 and 6). Structural and stereoisomerism in complexes with coordination numbers 4 and 6. Drawbacks of VBT. IUPAC system of Nomenclature.
Crystal Field Theory Crystal field effect, octahedral symmetry. Crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE), Crystal field effects for weak and strong fields. Tetrahedral symmetry. Factors affecting the magnitude of D. Spectrochemical series. Comparison of CFSE for Oh and Td complexes, Tetragonal distortion of octahedral geometry. Jahn-Teller distortion, Square planar coordination.
Molecular Orbital Theory: Molecular Orbital Energy diagrams of octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes, Writing molecular orbital configuration of octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes, -bonding in complexes and its effect on Crystal Field Splitting Energy.
Magnetic Properties of Complex ions: Paramagnetic and diamagnetic complexes, Calculation of s, s+L, eff and the relationship between the three.
Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Transition metal Complexes: Octahedral and tetrahedral complexes, d2-d8 ions Energy level diagram, Charge transfer spectra.
Chemistry of 3d metals: Oxidation states displayed by Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Co. A study of the following compounds (including preparation, industrial application and important properties); Peroxo compounds of Cr, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, K4[Fe(CN)6], sodium nitroprusside, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 , Na3[Co(NO2)6].

CY-208  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II
Alcohols And Phenols: Classification, Nomenclature, Physical properties, Preparation and reactions of Alcohols and phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature and physical properties, Preparation and reactions.
Carbonyl Compounds (Aldehydes and Ketones): Nomenclature, Natural occurrence, Physical properties, Reactions of aldehydes and ketones.
Carboxylic Acids And Their Derivatives: Nomenclature, Natural occurrence, Physical properties and preparation of carboxylic acids
Amines: Nomenclature, Classification and physical properties of amines, Preparation and reaction of amines.
Important Industrial Organic Chemicals:
Large scale production and derived products of the following important industrial chemicals acetophenone, Formaldehyde, Easter and simple amines.
Green Synthesis/Reactions:
Green Synthesis of the following compounds Adipic acid, Catechol, Urethane, Benzyl bromide, Acetaldehyde, Aromatic amines (4-aminodiphenylamine), ibuprofen, paracetamol, Microwave assisted reactions.

CY-209 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY II
Fundamentals of Electrochemistry: Electrical measurements, Galvanic cells, standard potentials, Nernst Equation, Relationship between Eo and equilibrium constant, Nernst Equation for half reactions, classification of electrochemical methods.
Potentiometric Methods of Analysis: potentiometric measurements, Reference Electrodes(NHE, SCE, Ag/AgCI), metallic Indicator Electrodes, membrane electrodes, Quantitative and Qualitative applications.
Coulometric Methods of Analysis: controlled-potential coulometry, controlled-current coulometry, Quantitative and Qualitative applications.
Voltammetric Methods of Analysis: Voltamettetric measaurements, current in voltammetry, shapes of voltammograms, voltammetric techniques: polarography, Amperometry, Quantitative and Qualitative applications.
Chromatographic Methods of Analysis: Principles of chromatography, classification, techniques of chromatography, General Theory of column chromatography (chromatographic resolution, capacity factor, column selectivity, column efficiency, peak capacity, non-ideal behavior)
Gas Chromatography: Mobile phase, chromatographic columns, stationary phases, temperature control, sample introduction, detectors for gas chromatography, Qauntitative and Qualitative applications.
High-Performance Liquid Chromatorygraphy:
HPLC columns, stationary phases, mobile phases, HPLC plumbing, sample introduction, Detectors for HPLC, Qualitative and quantitative applications.

CY-210 Physical Chemistry II
Chemical Equilibrium: Spontaneous chemical reactions and equilibrium, Properties of equilibrium state, Le Chatelier's Principle, the reaction quotient, Response of equilibria to the conditions such as concentration, pressure, temperature, Relationship between Kc and Kp, Heterogeneous equilibria, Nature of solubility equilibria, Distribution law and its validity, Application of the distribution law to the selected systems like solvent extraction, Extraction of metals from their ore, Investigation of complex ions,
Thermochemistry: Enthalpy, Entropy, Standard states, Hess’s Law. Bond energies
The Properties Of Surfaces: Properties of liquid surfaces, Surfactants,Experimental study of surface films, physical properties of monolayer, Langmuir-Blodgett film, Adsorption of liquid on surface, physisorption, chemisorption, Adsorption isotherm: The Langmuir isotherm, The BET isotherm, Fruendlich isotherm.
Colloidal systems: Introduction, properties of colloids, Classification, Preparation and purification of colloids, Emulsion, Emulsifiers
Macromolecules: Natural and synthetic polymers, conducting and non-conducting polymers, Their applications and reactivity.

 CY-313 Polymer Science
Monomers, polymers, nomenclature; molecular forces and chemical bonding (primary and secondary atomic and molecular bonding) in polymers; different functional groups and their properties; classification of polymers (thermoplastics and thermosets); polymer structure: skeletal structure, copolymers, tacticity, and geometrical isomerism; molar mass and its distribution.
Principles of polymerization: Classification of polymerization reaction, step-growth polymerization; kinetics, chain length regulation, Carothers equation.
Addition / chain growth polymerization, mechanism and kinetics of chain growth polymerization, ionic polymerization, chain transfer, inhibition and retardation, control of molecular weight.
Co polymerization: Principle and Industrial practice
Polymerization techniques: bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization, and emulsion polymerization.
1. Thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers.
Properties and applications of :
Commodity thermoplastics: polyolefins, vinyl polymers, polymethyl methacrylate.
Engineering thermoplastics ─ acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS, polyamides, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester (PET), acetal, modified poly (phenylene-oxide), polysulfones, poly (phenylene-sulphide), fluoropolymers.
Engineering thermosets: phenol formaldehyde, epoxies, formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, and polyurethane.
Elastomer: natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile rubber, polycloroprene, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), silicone, thermoplastic elastomer
Compounding, vulcanization, and role of different additives in elastomer.
Specialty Polymers: Polyimides, Ionic polymers, polyaryetherketones, specialty polyolefins, inorganic polymers, liquid crystal polymers, conductive polymers, high performance fibers, and dendritic polymers.
2. Polymer additives: Fillers and reinforcements, plasticizers, and other important additives.

CY-305  Industrial Stoichiometry
Units and Dimension, conversion of units dimension analysis, stoichiometric and composition, concepts of ideal gases, vapor pressure saturation and humidity as applied material balance calculation Introduction to material & energy balance computation.
Material balancing involving consecutive reactions, recycling and purging of streams, energy computation and conservation in respect of selected unit process and unit operation combined material and energy balance calculation over process with particular reference to petroleum refining.

CY-312  Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectrophotometry: Interaction of IR radiation with molecules, Types of molecular vibration, Selection rules, Instrumentation, Optical materials, Sources, Detectors used in IR spectroscopy, Interferometric (Fourier Transform), Spectrophotometers, Calibration and standardization, Preparation of samples for the analysis of solids, Liquids and gases.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Introduction, Chemical shift, Spin-spin splitting (spin coupling), Relaxation times
NMR Instrumentation: Magnets, Sample probes, Radiofrequency sources, Detectors, Techniques in instrumentation, Sample handling, NMR solvents, Purity, Reference compounds (TMS).
Quantitative Aspects: 1H-NMR Interpretation, Structure elucidation, 13C-NMR Interpretation, Structure elucidation.
Mass Spectrometry: Introduction to mass spectrometry, EI, CI, FAB, MALDI MS. Instrument components, Behavior and interpretation of various classes of compounds in mass spectrometry, Applications in chemical analysis.
Luminescence Spectrometry: Introduction, Types of luminescence, Energy level, Luminescent molecules, Process involving excited states i. e. Absorption, Vibrational relaxation, Internal conversion, Florescence, Intersystem crossing, and Phosphorescence. Instrumentation for fluorescence measurements and phosphorescence measurements.
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Flame and Electro thermal Atomization Method; Sample Atomization, Types and sources of atomic spectra, Radiation souces, Burner and nebulizer, Atomization cells, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Flame emission spectroscopy, Interferences and their control.
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Use of Gotrian diagram. Phenomenon of flame emission and interferences encountered in flame emission

CY-404   SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
Evaporation: Types of evaporator, jacketed, horizontal and vertical tube evaporators, force circulation evaporation, entrainment separators, multiple effect evaporator.
Distillation: Boiling and distillation, vapor liquid equilibria, azeotropic mixture, multicomponent systems, flash distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, extractive distillation, batch and continuous distillation, fractional distillation, equipment and working rectifiers, use of packed column
Extraction: Liquid equilibria, reflux and agitation, extraction equipment, continuous contact equipment, packed spray extractors, leaching, continuous leaching, counter current extraction
Filtration: Theory of filtration, pressure and vacuum filtration, filter aids, principles of cake filtration, cake filtration parameters, washing filter cake, centrifugal filtration, Nutsch and continuous filters
Crystallization: Crystallization from aqueous, non-aqueous solutions and melts, factors accelerating growth, separation of crystals, contaminants and their removal, crystal hydrates and solvates, decomposition of crystals, deliquescence and hygroscopicity, efflorescence, dehydration, crystallization equipment

       CY-303     Reaction Kinetics
Introduction and Scope of Chemical Kinetics: Experimental techniques for the determination of reaction rate, real time analysis, quenching method, flow method, stopped flow technique, flash photolysis, and electrochemical analysis, Factors affecting the rate of chemical reaction, Order and molecularity, Kinetics’ of Zero order reaction, first order reaction, second reaction order (with same initial and different initial concentration), and pseudo order reactions, Half -life for various order reactions, Methods for the determination of order of reactions, The collision Theory, The Transition State Theory, The Arrhenius Theory, Activation parameters. The kinetics and mechanism of complex reactions: chain reaction, polymerization, catalysis and oscillation.
Third and higher order reactions: Deduction of third order reactions with same and different initial concentrations of the reactants, Rate expression of 2A+B            Products, Relation between rate equations for the forward and backward reactions, Reversible first order reactions, Consecutive first order reaction, Effect of temperature on rate constant and equilibrium constant, frequency factor, Concept of steric and energy factor, Arrhenius parameters for bimolecular reactions. Metathesis reactions not involving atoms, Association reactions of radicals, Hinshelwood theory of unimolecular reaction, Bimolecular collision theory, Trimolecularre actions, Branched and unbranched chain reactions.
Influence of ionic strength on the reaction rate. Reactions in solutions, Effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the rate of the reaction. Single sphere activated complex model. Double sphere activated complex model, Complex reactions, Chainre actions ,Single chain carrier with second order breaking, One chain carrier with first order breaking. Two chain carrier with second order breaking, Experimental techniques for fast reactions.

 

 

 

 CY-308 UNIT pROCESS
Catalysts: Characteristics and mechanisms of catalyzed reactions – Homogeneous catalysis – Acid base catalysis – Heterogeneous catalysis – Chemi-sorption physi-sorption – Langmuir and Rideal mechanisms – Promoters and poisons – Enzyme catalysis – Oxidation, hydrogenation, cracking and acid catalysis in industries.
Nitration, Sulphonation and Amination: Nitrating agents, kinetics and mechanism, thermodynamics and industrial nitration processes. Sulphonating and Sulphating agents, kinetics; mechanism and thermodynamics, desulphonation, industrial processes. Aminating agents and catalysts, factors affecting ammonolysis, kinetics and thermodynamics, ammonia recovery Amination by reduction processes.
Oxidation, Hydrogenation and Halogenation
Oxidizing agents and oxidative reactions, liquid phase and vapour phase oxidation, kinetics and thermo chemistry catalytic hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis, kinetics and thermodynamics, industrial processes Halogenation reactions, kinetics and thermodynamics.
Hydrocarbon Synthesis
Constituents Petroleum – Methods - Refining Synthetic Petrol – Cracking – Thermal Cracking, Catalytic Cracking – Polymerization - Hydrocarbon Synthesis – Fischer Tropsch processes for hydrocarbon synthesis. Thermodynamics and kinetics of Fischer – Tropsch processes, Industrial process.
Esterification, Hydrolysis and Alkylation: Esterification by organic acids, carboxylic acid derivatives – Esters by addition of unsaturated
systems Esters by inorganic acids Hydrolysis – Hydrolyzing agents – Kinetics – Equilibrium of
hydrolysis. Alkylation – types, agents, factors controlling alkylation.

 CY-314  NATURAL PRODUCTS
Introduction: Primary and secondary natural products, Biochemistry (Scope and history), Cell structures and their functions, Origin and nature of biomolecules.
Vitamins: Introduction, Fat and water soluble vitamins, Chemistry and structural determination of vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin) and Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).
Carbohydrates: Introduction to carbohydrates, Monosaccharaides: Natural occurrence. Structure, Stereochemistry and absolute configuration, Stereo chemical relationship with glyceraldehyde, Stereoisomers of aldoses from D and L glyceraldehyde, Determination of ring size of aldoses and pentoses, Structure determination of D-(+)Glucose: Chemical methods, Spectroscopic methods, Reactions of monosaccharaides, Structure, occurrence and importance of deoxysugars, Amino sugars and Dihydroxy sugars. Steroids: Introduction to steroids, Cholesterol, Occurrence, Isolation, Physical properties, Medicinal importance and Structure elucidation by chemical methods and spectroscopic methods.
Proteins: Chemistry, Classification, Physical and chemical properties of amino acids, Biological significance of amino acids, Peptides and Proteins, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure of proteins, Denaturation of proteins.
Alkaloids: Introduction, Occurrence, Classification, Nomenclature, General methods for the detection of structure of alkaloids, Physical methods: IR, UV, Mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and chemical Methods: Oxygen functions; Hydroxyl, Carboxylic, Carbonyl, Ester, Lactone, Amido, Lactam or betaine, Methoxy and methylenedioxy group, Zerewittinoffs active hydrogen, Nitrogen functions, Determination of basic skeleton: Hoffmann’s exhaustive methylation, Emed’s modification, Von-Braun’s method, ZnCl2-distillation, Fusion with KOH, Oxidation, Reduction, Presence of unsaturation.
Terpenesand Terpenoids: General introduction, Classification, Isoprene rule, General methods of determining the structure. Monoterpenes: Acyclic: Chemistry and synthesis of myracene, citral and geraniol, Monocyclic: Terpenol, Bicylic: Chemistry and synthesis of pinene and camphor, Diterpenes, Gibbrellins: Chemistry and structural determination using spectroscopic methods.

CY-315   NUCLEAR & RADIATION CHEMISTRY
 Atomic nucleus, Nuclides, Nuclear stability, Modes of decay, Nuclear models (shell + liquid drop model), Fusion and fission, Non spontaneous nuclear processes, Nuclear reactors, Beta decay, Systematic  nuclear spins.
Nuclear Reactor: Design types and working of reactor.
Detection Methods: Methods based on ion collection, Scintillation detectors, Semiconductor detectors, Discussions on specific applications of detection devices.
Study of Labeled Compounds: Preparation and dispersion of labeled compounds, Details of job oriented labeled compounds.
Statistics of Radioactive Decay: Decay rate and statistics, Practical consideration, Optimum counting rate, Background count.
Radiation Protection and Control: Units of radiation exposure, Safety measures.

Radioisotopes in Chemical Applications: Radiocarbon dating, Isotope dilution techniques, Neutron activation analysis, Radiometric analysis, Gravimetric methods, Radio immune assay, Applications of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical dispersions, Radio tracers in chemical applications, Study of self-exchange reactions.
Mosbauer Spectroscopy: Basic information, Experimental technique Parameters and chemical applications of Mossbauer spectroscopy.
Radiation Dosimetry: Dose, Absorbed dose units, Radiation yields, Dosimetry methods of absolute measurement, Chemical dosimetry, Fricke dosimeter, Dosimetry in pulse radiolysis.
Reactions in Radiation Chemistry: General energy transfer, Characteristics and applications of gas, liquid and solid phase radiolysis, Instrumentation, Purity of chemicals and methods, Recent applications of radiation chemistry, Radiation hazards and safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

CY-402 EnvironmentAl Chemistry
Atmospheric Chemistry: The air around us, atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, Temperature inversion and photochemical smog, particulate matter in the atmosphere, Industrial pollutants, radioactivity, atmospheric aerosols, Acid rain –major sources, mechanism, control measures and effects on buildings and vegetation, Global warming – major greenhouse gases, mechanism, control measures and global impact, The stratospheric ozone – the ozone hole, CFCs, ozone protection, biological consequences of ozone depletion.
Water Pollution and Water Treatment:sources of water pollution-industrial sources and agricultural sources, heavy metals contamination of water, Eutrophification, detergents and phosphates in water, water quality criteria, Water purification – primary, secondary and advanced treatment, Removal of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds from polluted water, organic matter in water and its decomposition.
Soil Pollution: Soil and mineral resources, general principles of metal extraction, Heavy metals contamination of soil, toxicity of heavy metals, bio-accumulation of heavy metals, Organic matter in soil, Macro and micro-nutrients in soil, ion-exchange in soil, soil pH and nutrients availability.
Green Revolution:pest control, pesticides, toxicity of pesticides, integrated pests management. Energy Production and Environment: liquid and gaseous fuel, hydrogen economy. Renewable Energy: nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal and tidal energy.

CY-416 Nanotechnology
Nanochemistry: Introduction,  definition , length scales , importance of nanoscale and its technology , self-assembly of materials , self-assembly of molecules, porous solids, nanowires, nanomachines and quantum dots.
Nano Particles: Introduction , types of nanoparticles , preparation, properties and uses of gold, silicon, silver, zinc oxide, iron oxide, alumina and titania nanoparticles.
Synthetic Techniques: Equipment and processes needed to fabricate nano devices and structures, top down and bottom up approaches, common growth methods .
Nano Materials: Preparation, properties and applications of carbon nanotubes, nanorods, nano fibre and nanoclay.
Instrumental Techniques: Electron microscopes – scanning electron microscopes (SEM) – transmission electron microscopes (TEM) – scanning probe microscopy – atomic force microscopy (AFM) – scanning tunneling electron microscope (STEM) – basic principles only.

CY-403 BEVERAGE Industries
Introduction: Definitions and Classifications
Mineral Water:Technology; Chemical Constitutions and Microbiology.
Soft Drinks:Carbonated& Non- Carbonated Beverages. Classifications; Compositions; Processing; Production; Bottling and Canning.
Fruit Juices:Citrus and Non-Citrus - Definitions; Classifications; Compositions; Processing; Production; Bottling and Canning.
Stimulating Beverages: Tea & Coffee - Types and Classification,Cultivation,Fresh Leaf Composition; Black Tea Manufacturing; Instant Tea Manufacturing; Biological Activity of Tea, Chemistry of Coffee; Green Coffee Processing; Conversion of Green Coffee in to Black, De-caffeination of Coffee.
Chocolate Based Drinks: Introduction, Agronomy, Technology, Cocoa-Based Beverages; Biological Activity; Chemistry and Microbiology of Cocoa.

CY-406 FATS AND OILS
Introduction:Sources of Oils & Fats; General Uses; Classification of Lipids; Structure and Nomenclature of Fat; Chemical Compositions.
Extraction: Methods of Oil Extraction from Seeds and Fruits; Expeller & Screw Press; Solvent extraction; Rendering - Wet & Dry Rendering.
Processing:Refining Methods; Physical and Chemical Refining; De-gumming; Neutralization; Bleaching; Deodorization; Fractionation; Winterization; Hydrogenation; Interesterification; Esterification; Refining Efficiency; Refining By-products; Soap Stock; Processing & Refining of different Oils.
Characteristics of Oil & Fats: Physical & Chemical Characteristics of Oils and Fats.
Spoilage:Oxidative and Hydrolytic Rancidity; Causes & Inhibition.
Industrial Fats:Frying Oil; Shortenings; Margarine and Mayonnaise
Additives & Processing Aids:Antioxidants used in Edible Oils; Potential Hazards of Approved Antioxidants; Color Agents used in Edible Oils and Fats; Natural Identical Colors.

 

CY-414   PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY

Transformation of Chemicals into Drugs: Physiochemical Properties In Relation To Biological Action: Complex events between drug administration and drug action. Solubility, partition coefficient and drug-receptor interactions.
Factors Influencing Dosage Formations: Disintegration, dissolution and absorption of drugs, their pre-requisites, Effective blood level, Placebo effects, MIC values etc. and Drug-drug interactions.
Drug Metabolism: Factors influencing metabolism of drugs. Site of metabolism, Metabolic changes in GI tract, Types of metabolic reactions and Reactions based on functional groups.
Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR):Chemical structure in relation to biological activity of molecules, stereochemical factors, prodrugs, isosters and pharmacophoregroups. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties, mode of action, SAR studies and toxicity of the following drugs.
Sulfa drugs:Sulfa drugs in current therapy (human and veterinary use).
Drugs acting on NIDDM: Sulfonylureas. Antibiotics: Penicillin and related compounds, cephalosporins, tetracyclines chloramphenicol and quinolones. Antiviral agents and antineoplastic agents. Histamines and antihistamines: H1 and H2-receptor antagonists, development of H3 receptors and proton pump inhibitors.
Anti-malarial drugs, Analgesics (peripheral as well as centrally acting), local anesthetics
Recent trends in drug development: Quantitative structure activity relationship (OSAR), computer models and stimulations with examples including a case study of at least one drug.

 

CY-411   Surface CoatingS
Raw materials for paints and pigments; Classification and properties of surface-coating constituents; Classification and manufacture of pigments; Production of paints, varnishes, distempers, enamals and lacquers; Chemistry involved in the drying phenmena of paints; Drying oils for paint and classification of drying oils.

CY-413  SURFACTANTS AND COSMETICS
Soaps and Detergents: Introduction of soap, Raw materials for the manufacture of soap, Batch Kettle process, flow diagram and details, Monasavon process, Delaval process, Sharpless process, Introduction to detergents, Raw materials for the manufacture detergents, Classification, Examples of cationic, Anionic, Nonionic and Amphoteric detergents and their action with water binders, Opacifying agents, Flavors, Moisturizers, of soap industries, Chemistry involved in the production of soap and detergents, Action of builders, Additives, Brighteners and surfactants, Cleansing action soaps, Effect of acidic species and hard water on soap, Production of transparent soap.           

CY-408   POLYMER TECHNOLOGY

Classification of polymers, bonding in polymers, stereoisomerism, Polymer synthesis: Condensation, addition polymerization, copolymerization, bulk, solution, suspension and emulsion polymerization, Molecular weight and molecular weight determination, Polymer solutions and polymer solution thermodynamics, Physical states and transitions in polymers, Crystallinity and morphology of polymers, Introduction to rheology: elasticity, purely viscous flow, linear viscoelasticity, Basic processing operations: Extrusion process (Single and twin screw extruder), Injection moulding, Blow moulding (extrusion blow moulding, injection blow moulding, and stretch blow moulding), Mould and dies, Calendaring, Film blowing, Thermoforming, Vacuum forming, Pressure forming, Rotational moulding, Compression and transfer moulding, Reaction injection moulding. Mechanical properties of polymers, Commercial polymers, additives. Blending: Definitions of polymer blends, method of blending, compatibility and miscibility of polymer blends, thermodynamics of polymer-polymer mixing, blend morphology & characterisation. Examples of polymer blends.

INTERDISCIPLINARY COURSES

 

HS-104  FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH
Listening: Types of Listening, Problems in listening and coping strategies, Listening skills, sub skills, Practice in Listening, Note taking: Techniques for taking notes from lectures, from books, Note taking in different forms paragraphs, points, figures, processes, tables, graphs etc. Vocabulary development: Enhancing current vocabulary to reflect a better usage of words in spoken and written language, Tips/ strategies in vocabulary enhancement, Practice in vocabulary development. Reading: Reading skills, sub skills, Reading comprehension levels, Reading strategies, Reading practice through variety of reading texts and comprehension exercises, Beyond reading[ outline, précis, speech and presentation].Writing: Process of Writing, Informal Writing strategies, Writing correctly: sentence structure and punctuation, error correction, Paragraphs: Structure, types, topic and the topic sentence, and unity, adequate development and coherence in paragraphs, Essays: Types,  Five paragraphs long essays, and structure ( thesis statement and the paragraphs),Short Reports: Structure, format, and types (informational and analytical), Letters: elements, style, formatting (digital letter writing), organization and structure of the letter, and types (Routine requests and intimation, invitation, thank you and condolence letters etc.)The Elements of International Style: A Guide to writing correspondence, reports, Technical Documents, and internet pages for a global Audience by Edmond H Weiss.

PH-123   GENERAL PHYSICS-I

Mechanics: Vector algebra and its applications, Line and Surface Integrals and their applications, Gradient, Curl, Divergence and applications, Newton’s laws and their applications, Motion in two dimension, Moment of inertia, Angular momentum and its conservation, Work, energy and power, Efficiency, Work done by a variable force.
Properties of Matter: Elasticity, Bulk Modulus, Modulus of Rigidity, Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s ratio for rubber,
Torsion Pendulum, Bending Beams, Fluids, Liquids and Gases, Hydrostatic Pressure, Hydrostatic Pressure due to Liquid Column, Manometer, Viscosity, Coefficient of Viscosity, Variation of Viscosity with Temperature, Molecular Forces, Surface Tension, Explanation of Surface Tension, Surface Films and Surface Energy, Capillary action in a liquid, Surface Tension and its variation with Temperature.
Heat & Thermodynamics:
Temperature and heat, thermal properties of matter, laws of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, Heat transfer, Heat engines and rerigrators
Waves and Optics: Wave properties, types and behaviour. The wave equation. Progressive and standing waves. Nature of sound: propagation, velocity, infrasonic and ultrasonic waves, Variation of velocity of sound with temperature, Sound intensity, loudness and the decibel. The Doppler Effect. Water waves, wave motion in deep and shallow water, tides. Principles of Meteorology, wind systems ,Electromagnetic spectrum: general properties of Reflection, Refraction, Snell's Law, Total internal reflection, fibre optics and their applications, lenses and associated applications. Interference, diffraction . Polarisation. Microscopes and Telescopes, Sextant, Spectrometer.

   MT-173 CALCULUS

Vectors: Review of vectors, Vector derivatives. Line and surface Integrals. Gradient of a Scalar.
Complex Number: Argand diagram, De Moivre formula, roots of polynomial equations, curve and regions in the complex plane, standard functions and their inverses (exponential, circular and hyperbolic functions).
Limits and Continuity: Bounds and bounded sets, Limit point of sets, Sequence, Convergence of sequences monotonic sequences, Function and their graph, limit of function and continuous functions.

Differential Calculus: Differentiation and Successive differentiation and its application; Leibnitz theorem, Taylor and Maclaurin theorems with remainders in Cauchy and Lagrange form, Taylor and Maclaurin series, L’Hopitals Rule, extreme values of a function of one variable using first and second derivative test, asymptotes of a function, curvature and radius of curvature of a curve, partial differentiation, exact differential and its application in computing errors, Multivariate functions, Maxima and Minima for multivariate functions, Maxima Minima under certain conditions (Language Multiplier).
Integral Calculus: Indefinite integrals and their computational techniques, reduction formulae definite integrals and their convergence, Beta and Gamma functions and their identities, double and triple integration with applications. (Area, Volume, centroid, inertia, arc length).
Vector Algebra: Scalar and Vector quantities, physical and geometrical meanings.Algebra of vectors. Scalar and Vector triple products.

HS-105 PAKISTAN STUDIES
An Outline of Emergence of Pakistan:
A brief historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent.War of Independent 1857 and Aftermatch. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Development of Two Nation Theory. Formation of Muslim League.LucknowPact.Khilafat& Non-Cooperation Movement.Political Events from 1924 to 1937.Pakistan Resolution - Struggle for Pakistan from 1940 to 1947.Emergence of Pakistan.Land of Pakistan: Geophysical conditions, Territorial situation and its importance, Natural Resources - Mineral and Water. Constitutional Process: Early effects to make constitution - Problems and issues. Constitution of 1956 and its abrogation.The constitution of 1962 and its annulment. Constitutional and Political Crisis of 1971; The constitution of 1973. Recent constitutional developments. Post-Independence Development: Education in Pakistan; Planning & Development in the Field of Education. Development of Science and Technology with special reference to Engineering and Architecture. Brief survey of Pakistan Economy: Industrial and Agricultural Development. Internal and external trade. Economic planning and prospects. Cultural Development in Pakistan: Definition, Contents and Contributing factors in culture, Development of Art, Philosophy and literature. Foreign Policy: Relations with neighbors, Super powers and the Muslim World. 

 

HS-127 PAKISTAN STUDIES (FOR FOREIGNERS)
Land of Pakistan: Land & People –Strategic importance – Important beautiful sights – Natural resources (some portion of economics of Pakistan) A brief Historical Background: A brief historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent – British rule & its impacts – Indian reaction – Two nation theory Origin and development – Factors leading towards the demand of a separate Muslim state – Creation of Pakistan. Government & Political Development in Pakistan: Constitution of Pakistan – A brief outline – Governmental structure Federal and Provincial – Local Government Institutions – Political History a brief account. Pakistan & the Muslim World: Relations with the Muslim countries. Language and Culture: Origins of Urdu Language - Influence of Arabic & Persian on Urdu Language & Literature  - A short history of Urdu literature  - Dominant Culture features.

EE-119 FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Electrical Elements and Circuits: Energy and energy transfer, Electric charge, electric current, potential difference & voltage, Electric power & energy, Electric circuits, Sources & element resistance, Ohm`s Law Inductance, Capacitance, Fundamental circuits Laws, Kirchhoff’s Laws, Direct application of fundamental laws to simple resistive networks, Node voltage and loop current methods.
Steady State AC Circuits: An introduction to periodic functions, RMS or effective, Average and maximum values of current & voltage for sinusoidal signal wave forms, An introduction to phasor method of analysis, Applications of phasor methods to simple AC circuits, Power and reactive power, Maximum power conditions.
 Magnetic Circuits and Transformers: Magnetic effects of electric current, Magnetic circuit concepts, Magnetization curves, Characteristics of magnetic materials, Magnetic circuits with AC excitation, Hystesis and eddy current losses, Introduction to transformer, The ideal transformer.
Electromechanical Energy Conversion: Basic principles, Generated voltage, Electromagnetic Torque, Introduction of Magnetic Fields, Alternating current generators, Commutator action, DC machines, Direct current Generators, Electric motors, Losses and efficiency, Machine Application consideration.
Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis: Network response to sinusoidal driving functions, Complex impedance and admittance functions, Development of concept of phasors, Power consideration, Complex power, Maximum power transfer, Tuned circuits, Series and parallel RLC tuned circuits, Definition of Quality factor. 
 
CT-158   FUNDAMENTALS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Introduction to IT, recent advances in IT, IT systems, Development of the modern computer. Introduction to Software, data structures, coding. Programming and problem solving algorithms. Data types and representation. Basic organization of computer, Number systems. Introduction to Data communication, database, Information System and MIS, Networks and Internet concepts.

PH-124    GENERAL PHYSICS-II
   Coulombs Law, Electric Field, Continuous change distribution, Electric Field due to charge distributions,    Gauss`s Law and it applications, Electric field around conductors. Electric Potential, Capacitors and dielectrics. Electric current and its heating effect, Power and its relationship with current and resistance, Chemical effects, Passage of current through a conducting solution, Primary and secondary cells and batteries, Alternating voltage and currents in outline, Frequency phase relationship, Peak instantaneous and r.m.s values, Reactance, Impedance, Power dissipation, RLC circuits. Simple A.C and D.C circuits. Magnetic Field, Magnetic force on a moving charge particle, Hall Effect, The magnetic field caused by current and resulting effects, the effect on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field, Biotsavart law, Amperes law, Magnetic field of rings and Coil, Magnetic Dipole moment of atom, Theory of Magnetism, Laws of Magnetism, Intensity of Magnetization, Permeability, Retentivity, Hysteresis Curve for ferromagnetic materials, Pole Strength, Field strength, Magnetic Moment and Couple, Band theory of solids, Energy levels in a semiconductor, Hole concept, Intrinsic and Extrinsic regions, Law of Mass, Action, Different types of LED. Wave nature of light, wave particle duality, De-Broglie hypothesis, Photoelectric effect, Characteristics of different types of photo cell, Electron Microscopes, Laser and its applications, Atomic Spectra, Generation and Properties of X-ray, X-ray spectra, Nuclear Radiation, Nuclear Reactions, Carbon dating, Nuclear radiation detectors, Hazards and use of Nuclear Radiation.
HS-205 ISLAMIC STUDIES
Quranic Verses, Tauheed: Al-Ambiya-22, Al-Baqarah - 163&164, Prophethood: Aal-e-Imran-79, Al-Hashr-7, Al-Maidah-3, Here-After: Al –Baqarah-48, and one Hadith, Basic Islamic Practices, Al-Mu’ minun-1-11, and two Ahadith, Amer-Bil-Ma‘Roof Wa-Nahi Anil Munkar, the concept of Good & Evil, Importance and necessity of  Da’wat-e-Deen Aal-e-Imran-110, Method of Da’wat-e-Deen An-Nahl-125, Aal-e-Imran-104, and two Ahadith, Unity of the Ummah, Al-Imran-103, Al-Hujurat-10, Aal-e-Imran-64, Al-An’ am –108, and two Ahadith, Kasb-e-Halal, Ta ha-81, Al- A’raf-32-33, Al-Baqarah-188, and two Ahadith, Haquq-ul-Ibad, Protection of life Al-Maidah-32, Right to Property Al-Nisa-29, Right to Respect & Dignity Al-Hujurat-11-12, Freedom of Expression: Al-Baqarah-256, Equality: Al-Hujurat-13, Economic Security: Al-Ma’arij-24-25, Employment Opportunity on Merit: An-Nisa-58, Access to Justice: An- Nisa-135, Women’s Rights, An-Nahl-97, Al-Ahzab-35, An-Nisa-07, Relations with Non-Muslims, Al-Mumtahenah-8-9, Al-Anfa’al-61 and The last Sermon of Hajj of Holy Prophet (PBUH): Relevant extracts, Seerat (life) of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Birth, life at Makkah, declaration of prophet hood, preaching & its difficulties, migration to Madina, brotherhood (Mawakhat) & Madina Charter, The Holy Wars of the Prophet (Ghazwat-e-Nabawi), Hujjat-ul-Wida, The last sermon of Khutbatulwida: Translation and important points, Islamic Civilization, In the sub-continent: pre-Islamic civilizations, The political, social & moral impacts of Islamic civilization, In the world: academic, intellectual, social & cultural impact of Islam on the world.
HS-209 ETHICAL BEHAVIOR (FOR NON-MUSLIMS)
Introduction to Ethics, Definition of Ethics, Definition between normative and positive science, Problem of freewill, Method of Ethics, Uses of Ethics, Ethical Theories, History of Ethics: Greek Ethics, Medieval, Modern Ethics, Basic concept of right and wrong: good and evil, Utilitarianism, hedonism, self-realization: egoism, intuitionism, rationalism, Kant’s moral philosophy, Ethics & Religion, The relation of Ethics to religion, Basic ethical principles of major religions: Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Islam, Ethics, Society, and moral theory, Ethical foundation of Rights and Duties, Applied Ethics, Society as the background of moral life, Universalism and Altruism, Theories of punishment,
 
MT-223  ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS & FOURIER SERIES

1stOrder Differential Equations: Basic concept, Formation of differential equations and solution of differential equations by direct integration and by separating the variables, Homogeneous equations and equations reducible to homogeneous from, Linear differential equations of the order and equations reducible to the linear form, Bernoulli's equations and orthogonal trajectories, Application in relevant Engineering.
2nd and Higher Orders Equations: Special types of 2nd order differential equations with constant coefficients and their solutions, the operator D; Inverse operator l/D, solution of differential by operator D methods, Special cases, Cauchy's differential equations; Simultaneous differential equations, Simple application of differential equations in relevant Engineering.
Partial Differential Equation: Basic concepts and formation of partial differential equations, Linear homogeneous partial differential equations and relations to ordinary differential equations, Solution of first order linear and special types of second and higher order differential equations, D’ Alembert's solution of the wave equation and two dimensional wave equations, Lagrange's solution: Various standard forms.
Lap lace Integral & Transformation: Definition, Laplace transforms of some elementary functions, First translation or shifting theorem, Second translation or shifting theorem, Change of scale property, Laplace transform of the nth order derivative, Initial and final value theorem Laplace transform of integrals, Laplace transform of functions tn F(t) and F(t)/ t, Laplace transform of periodic function, Evaluation of integrals, Definition of inverse Laplace transform and inverse transforms, Convolution theorem, Solutions of ordinary differential using Laplace transform.
Fourier series: Periodic functions and expansion of periodic functions in Fourier series and Fourier coefficients, Expansion of function with arbitrary periods, Odd and even functions and their Fourier series, Half range expansions of Fourier series, “DFT and FFT, Fourier Spectrum".

MT-331  Probability and Statistics
Introduction: Types of data & variables, presentation to data, object, classifications, Tabulation, Frequency distribution & their types, Graphical representation, Simple & Multiple Bar diagrams, Pie-Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curves.
Measure of Central Tendency and Dispersion: Statistical Averages, Median, Mode, Quartiles, Range, Moments, Skewness & Kurtosis, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation, Variance & its coefficient.
Probability: Set Theory, Basic concepts, Permutation & Combination, Definitions of probability Applying set theory to probability, Probability axioms, some consequences of the axioms, Conditional probability, Independence, Baye’s rule.
Random Variables: Introduction, Discrete & Continuous random variables, Random Sequences and transformations, Probability distribution, Probability density function, Distribution function, Mathematical expectations, Moment Generating Function (M.G.F.).
Probability Distributions: Introduction, Discrete probability distributions, Binomial, Poisson, Hypergeometric & Negative binomial distributions. Continuous probability distribution, Uniform, Exponential, Gamma, Weibull & Normal distributions & their practical significance.
Sampling and Sampling Distributions: Introduction, Population, Parameter & Statistic, Objects of Sampling, Questionnaire Designing, Sampling Techniques,Sampling& Non-Sampling Errors, Random Sampling, Probability and Non Probability Sampling, Sampling with & without replacement, Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Systematic Sampling, Cluster Sampling, Sampling Distribution of Mean, Standard Errors, Central Limit Theorem
Curve Fitting: Introduction, fitting of a first and second degree curve, fitting of exponential and logarithmic curves related problems, Principle of least squares, Introduction to Time series.
Regression and Correlation: Properties of  Least Square, Simple Linear Regression, Non Linear Regression, Multiple Regression, Estimates of Regression parameters, Confidence Limits & Test of Significance, Choice of a Regression Model, Correlation, Multiple and Partial Correlation, Coefficient of Determination.

CT-153 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

Language: Definition, structures, survey of some programming languages, special and general purpose languages, data types. Comparative study by means of primitive and composite data structures, Control structures by means of expression of algorithms.

HS-201ORAL COMMUNICATION

Foundations for oral communication: introduction to communication, model of communication competence, perception, language and nonverbal communication, listening, interpersonal communication: introducing IPC and its assumptions, challenges, principles and ethics of IPC, interpersonal relationships and skills, conversation: process, management and problems, interpersonal conflict, pair discussion/ debate, small group communication: need and significance of small group communication, challenges and coping strategies in small group competence, decision making, leadership and managing relationships in small groups, group discussion practice, public speaking & technical presentations: introduction to public speaking, realizing speaking types[speaking to inform, explain or persuade], understanding speech preparation (process and model, purpose and thesis, gathering support materials, organizing and outlining, and developing visual aids), delivering speech effectively (eloquence, voice and articulation, non-verbal cues, and avoiding pitfalls), practice in speech and technical presentations, interviewing: types of interviews and process, considerations & skills during interviews, preparing for effective interviewing, simulating employment interviewing.

CH-202   FLUID MECHANICS-I
Introduction: Liquids and gases, properties of fluids, Force, mass and weight, Units and Conversions. Fluid Statics: Basic equations, pressure forces on surfaces, Pressure vessels, piping, Buoyancy, pressure measuring devices. Pressure in accelerated rigid body motions. General mass balance for single and multi -component fluids. Bernoulli’s equation and its applications; diffusers and sudden expansion: Torricelli’s equation, cavitation and unsteady flows. Fluid Friction: Reynolds Experiment; laminar and turbulent flows; Friction factor method, fitting loses, enlargements and contractions, friction in non-circular channels, economic pipe diameter, flow around submerged objects. Momentum: Momentum balances; steady flow applications, relative velocities, starting and stopping flows, angular momentum balances. One dimensional high velocity gas flows, shock waves, choking flow, ideal gas considerations, nozzles and diffusers. Dimensional Analysis: Bukingham –Pi Theorem; Reynold’s law of Similitude.

EL-102    BASIC ELECTRONICS
Ideal Diode, Example of Ideal Diode, Practical Diode and Example, Application of Diode (Clippers and Clamper), Rectifier Circuit Half Full Wave and Bride, Diode Exponential Model, DC Analysis and Design Problem, Small Signal Amplifier and Model, Amplifier Configuration (CB and CE), Mosfet (Physical Structure), DC Analysis, Small Signal Model, Common Source Amplifier.

HS- 301 BUSINESSES& ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Business Communication Foundations: Definition of business, organization and communication, Goals, patterns, principles, channels, tools, levels, Qualities(7 C’s) and process of communication, Forms and functions of organizational communication, Communication barriers, Feedback and its types, Listening & Understanding Nonverbal Communication, International and cross cultural communication,
Communication Technologies and Techniques: Tools for digital communication, Etiquettes and ethics of using communication technologies
Communicating in Teams: Improving your performance in Teams (team communication, group dynamics, Etiquette in team settings), Making your meetings more productive (preparing for meetings, leading and participating in meetings, Meeting Notice, Agenda and minutes, Meeting simulation
Business Writing: Planning Audience Centered Business Messages & Applying the three step Writing Process, Letter and Memos (Structure and elements) Practice in writing letters and memos, Three Types of Business Messages and situations: Routine/Neutral/Positive/Good news and Goodwill Msgs, Negative/Bad News Msgs, Persuasive Msgs.
Employment Communication: Resume/CV, Job application (solicited and unsolicited)
Writing Proposals and Reports: Finding and Communicating Information, Communicating Information Through Visuals, Writing effective Proposals, Short Reports ( analytical and informational reports, memo and letter reports), Formal Reports ( structure and organization)

CH-206 THERMODYNAMICS
Chemical thermodynamics: Scope and definitions; Isolated, closed and open systems; Intensive and extensive properties; State and functions of state;
First law; Internal energy U; Enthalpy H; Reversibility; Calorimetry; Enthalpies of formation and reaction; Bond dissociation energy and mean bond energy; Dependence of U and H on temperature; First law as applied to ideal gases; Isothermal; Isometric; isobaric; polytropic and adiabatic processes involving an ideal gas; P-V-T relationships for non-ideal gases.
Second law; Entropy; Equilibrium and observable change; Changes in entropy with changes in P, V, and T. Helmholtz function A. Gibbs function (free energy) G. Fundamental equations for closed systems. Maxwell relationships.properties of mixtures of ideal gases.G for ideal and non-ideal gases.Fugacity.Partial molar quantities.
Chemical potential.Excess Thermodynamic Functions.Third law of Equilibrium (reversible) and spontaneous (irreversible) change.
Phase equilibria: Phase rule; One component systems; Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations. Two component systems.Liquid-vapor equilibria. Ideal and Non-ideal solutions; Composition of vapor in equilibrium with liquid; Azeotropes.Mixing.Liquid-solid equilibria.Eutectic.Compoundformation.Solid solutions.
Chemical equilibria; equilibrium constants for gas phase reactions. Temperature dependence of Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constants; factors affecting degree of conversions, condensed phases, solution equilibria, fuel cells, liquification.

CH-203    CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
Past, present and future of Chemical Industries in Pakistan. Types of Chemical Industries; Silicate and allied products, Glass, Ceramics and Cement, Phosphorus, Soap and Detergents, Sugar, Paints and Varnishes; Heavy Chemicals, Sulphuric Acid production, Nitric Acid, Water conditioning and purification for steam and other purposes. Fermentation Industries, industrial alcohol and industrial solvents, Fertilizers and their types; Explosives their types and manufacture; Refractory types, manufacture and properties. Industrial Gases, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen etc. Food processing industries, food by products; Plastic industries, types and their properties, manufacture of plastics etc.; Paper and pulp industries, introduction and manufacturing procedures. Industrial Solvents.

CH-405    INDUSTRIAL SAFETY & MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
Introduction: Accident and loss statistics, public perception of chemical industry, the accident process, some significant disasters as case studies; Toxicology: how toxicants enter and are eliminated from biological organisms, effects of toxicants, dose versus response models, threshold limit values. Industrial Hygiene: Government regulations, identification and evaluation and control of various exposures in chemical industry. Fires and explosions: fire triangle, flammability characteristics of liquids and vapors. Design to prevent fires and explosions. Hazard identification and risk assessment. Accident investigations and case histories. Forms of maintenance, scheduling of maintenance. Computerized Maintenance. Non-destructive testing techniques. Forms of corrosion, prevention and inhibition,; Preparation for startup and shutdown. Preventive and predictive maintenance.

CH-406    PETROLEUM REFINING & PETROCHEMICALS
Origin & formation of petroleum, Composition of petroleum, Petroleum processing, Crude classification, Crude evaluation, Thermal properties of crude, Crude analysis, Crude fraction properties, Pretreatment of crude, Distillation of petroleum (ADU & VDU), Pipe still heater of crude, Arrangement of towers, Treatment techniques, Thermal and catalytic processes Petrochemicals: Methanol, Formaldehyde, Ethylene production by steam cracking of naphtha, Ethylene dichloride, Vinyl chloride monomer, Vinyl acetate monomer, Ethylene oxide, AcetaldehydeE Propylene, Acrylonitrile, Propylene oxide, MTBE, Butadiene, BTX separation, Benzene by dealkylation of toluene.

  CH-407    INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT
Introduction and History, Company and Organization, Facility Location and Layout Planning, Operation Planning and Control, Marketing and Distribution, Total Quality Management, Project Management, Maintenance Management, Financial Management, Human Resources, Other Topics and Recent Trends in Management