DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Quantification of Flow Resistance for Unlined Canals in Alluvial Soils
The design of unlined channels continues to be a challenge for researchers. The correct estimation of channel resistance is the main parameter which needs to be addressed, since on this depends the channel design. Pakistan irrigation system with 40,000 miles long unlined canals varying in discharge from 20,000 cusecs to 200 cusecs were designed on Lacey’s equations with values of channel roughness based on statistical relationship between various parameters of channels in regime. The present research will focus on develop equations which can describe in a comprehensive manner channel roughness in alluvial soil based on a scientific and rational approach.
The main aim and objective of this research is to develop a “Simplified Adoptive Prediction Model Unlined Canals “(SAPMUC) for unlined canals based on rational scientific basis superseding the cumbersome and substantially erroneous method in vogue. The research endeavour shall also aim at developing the prediction model for unlined canals in alluvial soil which can conveniently utilize method lies pertaining to lined canals. Scope of the research shall encompass experimental and field studies of representative canals for development of the prediction model and validating against existing software. The beneficiaries of this research would include all the engineering design methods in vogue like the Lacey’s and its modifications. Instead of using large number of complex equations in prediction model for unlined canals producing inaccurate results one single equation would be used as done for lined channels. This endeavour being related to Pakistani soil will greatly improve the design methodologies and understanding.
Building Capacity in Pakistan to Seismically Retrofit Essential Structures.
Objective of the research is capacity building in Pakistan to seismically retrofit essential structures in collaboration with experts for Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, University of California, Berkley and John A. Blume Earthquake Centre, Stanford University, USA.
Faculty from various Engineering Universities of Pakistan, as well as practicing professionals were trained in various aspects related to earthquake and its implication on the infrastructure, along with development of curriculum of undergraduate and post graduate level.
The long-term objective of the proposed activity is to build the capacity in Pakistan‘s academic, public, and private sectors to:
• Develop processes for identification of vulnerable essential buildings
• Assess the vulnerability of existing essential buildings
• Develop retrofit solutions appropriate for the Pakistani context
• Improve the quality of academic curricula related to earthquake safety
• Improve the earthquake performance of new structures.
The short-term objectives are to:
• Develop teaching materials and train a cadre of Professors from NED University of Engineering & Technology and other Pakistani universities, and private-sector professionals in earthquake-related fields, to teach earthquake engineering, assessment and retrofit methods
• Train private-sector building professionals to understand the earthquake performance of buildings and apply assessment and retrofit methods
• Strengthen the relationships between earthquake engineering research professionals in Pakistan and the United States.
Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) for Civil Infrastructure Applications in Pakistan
Aim of this project is to explore the possibilities of using FRP in strengthening and retrofitting of civil infrastructure.
Deterioration of civil engineering infrastructure may be attributed to aging, environmentally induced degradation, poor initial design and/or construction, lack of maintenance, change of use, more stringent design criteria and natural events such as earthquakes. Use of conventional materials and methodologies to upgrade and replace existing structures has often led to multiple repairs, a situation unaffordable to infrastructure owners. Newer technologies, such as use of non-corrosive fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement, will increase the service lives of concrete structures and reduce maintenance costs.
The serious issue of upgrading and rehabilitating Pakistan's civil engineering infrastructure using new materials and construction techniques is addressed in this project. Its primary research objective is the development and field implementation of advanced technologies for the rehabilitation and strengthening of civil engineering structures. In order to extend the service life of infrastructure into the 21st century, substantial rehabilitation programs need to be enacted for the repair and strengthening of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures. With the development of new and innovative construction materials and techniques, much is changing in the perception of concrete, concrete repair and strengthening, and in the understanding of materials and methods. Key elements in this project are the corrosion-resistant, lightweight FRPs which have recently made major breakthroughs in civil engineering applications. FRP rehabilitation is a cost-effective, state-of-the-art technology in the repair and strengthening of structures. Rehabilitation techniques using FRPs have gained popularity in United States, Canada, Japan and Europe due to these obvious advantages. Use of rehabilitation techniques using FRPs is however almost non-existent in Pakistan. Reservations exist primarily because of unresolved questions concerning the performance; long-term cost-effectiveness and durability of FRP retrofit techniques in severe climatic conditions. Since the technology is relatively new, experimental investigations need to be carried out to study the performance of FRP strengthened RC structural elements that were initially damaged due to the seismic activities and/ or harsh environmental conditions prevalent in the coastal areas of Pakistan.
This project focuses on testing of damaged RC beams strengthened in flexure and shear with externally bonded FRP along with development of a computational tool to predict the load deflection curves of RC beams strengthened by externally bonded FRP strips and wraps. The primary outcome of the research program is expected to provide answers to outstanding practical questions related to the use of FRP strengthening and rehabilitation techniques. These questions are related to the mechanical behaviour of FRP-retrofitted structures, to the design and development of safe and economical retrofitting systems, and to issues related to upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure of Pakistan to withstand natural disasters.
Structural Applications of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC)
Concrete lends itself to a variety of innovative designs as a result of its many desirable properties. Not only can it be cast in diverse shapes; but it also possesses high compressive strength, stiffness, low thermal and electrical conductivity and low combustibility and toxicity.
Two characteristics, however, have limited its use: it is brittle and weak in tension. Recently, however the development of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) has provided a technical basis for improving these deficiencies. With low modulus of elasticity, high strength, excellent ductility, excellent durability, and low price, polypropylene fibre is often used in cement-based materials to improve the toughness and anti-cracking performance of the matrix composite.
Objectives of this study are to characterize mechanical properties of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) and conduct analytical study for use of PFRC in structural members such as Beams and in Bridge Deck applications. The experimental work will include characterization of the effect of amount of fibres (volume fraction) on compressive, tensile and flexural strength of PFRC. The analytical work will include the utilization of the stress-strain curves of PFRC to study the beneficial effects in the Beams and Bridge Deck applications (including reduction in cracking).
Use of High Strength bars in Structural Members
Steel has been established for more than 100 years as a principal construction material for civil infrastructure. When steel re-bars are used with concrete (that is weak in tension), the resulting composite Reinforced Concrete (RC) is widely used worldwide and in developing countries including Pakistan for variety of applications including High rise buildings, car park decks, offshore platforms, ocean vessels, bridges, etc.
In Pakistan, quality assurance of re-bars is practically non-existent and there is no generally accepted testing method for testing of re-bars. In Pakistan, steel re-bars of Grade 60 (yield strength of 60 ksi) are exclusively used; however re-bar production of high strength re-bars has recently started. Xtreme re-bars (Grade 72.5, 500 MPa steel) are available for use in Structural applications.
In civil construction a variety of materials are in competition and this is initiating a continuous technological innovation. This innovation not only concerns the improvement of the materials themselves, but also results in the introduction of new technologies and methods for the fabrication, joining and construction. In structural design the common practice is to use Grade 60. It is necessary to know about the advantages and disadvantages of Grade 72.5 steel over Grade 60. A structural engineer should have adequate knowledge about effects of Grade 72.5 steel in reinforced concrete design for an efficient and economical design.
Investigation of Properties of Concrete by using Cements Manufactured in Pakistan
Problems of concrete durability are a cause of major concern all over the country especially in the coastal areas where the structures have undergone deterioration well before their expected life and need proper attention and care. Realizing the aggressive nature of the environmental conditions and the local construction materials of the country, research was initiated to assess performance of concrete made with locally available cements under aggressive environmental conditions.
Objective of this study is to carry out a comparative study of the chemical and mechanical properties of different brands of cements manufactured in Pakistan and to identify the factors that influence variations in the properties of concrete prepared with these cements.
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Renewable Energy Production Using Sustainable Anaerobic Digestion Process
Aim of this research is to optimize the energy generation from single stage reactors using various feed stocks, co-digested with nitrogen and carbon rich waste streams.
To optimize the hydraulic retention time (HRT), a continuous flow reactor study has been planned attempting three HRTs: 20, 15 and 10 days respectively. To increase the progress two reactors have been fabricated using all local resources and currently two different HRTs 15 and 20 days are being attempted.
During the operation, the daily biogas production, volatile solids removed, environmental parameters such as ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) total alkalinity (TA) and performance of reactor is being monitored regularly.
Application of Solar Disinfection for Treatment of Contaminated Water
A sustainable and simple point of use household drinking water solar disinfection (SODIS) technology was successfully applied to treat microbiologically contaminated water. Field experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of SODIS and evaluate the potential benefits and limitations of SODIS under local climatic conditions of Karachi, Pakistan.
This is the first detailed scientific research on SODIS in Pakistan.
In order to enhance the efficiency of SODIS, the application of physical (black-backed rear surface and reflective surface batch reactors) interventions were also investigated. Physical interventions increased the temperature of water in the batch reactors and enhanced performance of SODIS. Moreover, an experiment was also conducted to determine concentration of plasticizers with and without application of SODIS.
DEPARTEMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING
NED City Campus Restoration Project
Restoration and rehabilitation of city campus initiated by NED University included documentation, restoration/ conservation report, proposals for campus rehabilitation and phase-wise execution of the project.
First Phase comprises of complete restoration of building 1 and partial works in building 2 & 5 and this phase has completed in year 2009.
In Second Phase, new construction of lecture hall was proposed and work related to this phase has commenced in July 2010 and is in progress.
Karachi Historic Buildings Re-Survey Project
The first phase of this project covering 17 historic quarters’ of Karachi was completed in 2010. The outcomes of this phase of project comprised of complete mapping and inventory listing reports, which were presented to the heritage committee and follow-ups were done to push for the enlistment notification of buildings identified for inclusion in the list of protected heritage of Karachi. As a result of these efforts a list of 1061 properties, including buildings, open spaces and urban elements (in addition to the already listed 581 properties) has been approved by the heritage advisory committee, GoS, and notified by the Department of Culture, GoS.
The second phase of the project, extending the surveys into historic quarters and areas of Karachi that were not covered in previous listing process, will be initiated in 2012, and third phase of project comprising of identification of iconic buildings of Karachi due to variety of attributes will follow after completion of second phase.
First phase of this project was commenced in Jan. 2006 and has completed in year 2010. The second phase was approved by Department of Culture in May 2010 and its actual field work has been initiated in Sept. 2011 which is now in progress.
Preparation of Technical Reports for Various Buildings
On the request of Department of Culture, GoS, a technical report on a listed building located on 5/4/2 Rambagh-10, Robson Road was submitted in 2009-10; and a follow-up investigation was undertaken in July 2010. Work on technical reports of Fakir Ayazuddin House 237 Staff Lines, City Courts and Karachi Press Club in progress. The Sindh Endowment Fund Trust also requested a technical report on Udho Haveli Complex, Tajo Dero (Jacobabad District) which was submitted in January 2011.
About 32 detailed technical reports have been submitted on different historic buildings during Feb. 2006 to Sept. 2011, which were requested by the Department of Culture, GoS.
Karachi’s Manuscript Publication
Publication of monographs on Karachi’s listed heritage properties compiled in historic quarter-wise volumes; for disseminating research outcome of KHBRP. This work is to be published now.
The Heritage Cell is presently appointed as consultants for Hamdard Matab Restoration/ Conservation Project (report submitted in April 2011 and work is in progress for BOQs and detailed architectural/ restoration drawings); and working as conservation consultants (in collaboration with architectural consultant) for restoration and extension of Ladies Food Club located on Claremont Road, Civil Lines (report submitted in December 2010).
Recently HC-DAPNED has been approached by FNMH Architects to work in collaboration on the project of Frere Hall Restoration, undertaken by the Department of Antiquities, GoS.
National Foods Ladies Club: Guidelines for Restoration and New Extensions
Heritage Cell undertook this project as co-consultants with ICON. Heritage Cell-DAPNED’s contribution included detailed measured documentation of the historic building and detailed report on restoration and extension guidelines for the main architectural consultants.
This work commenced in June 2010 and completed in Jan. 2011.
Frere Hall Documentation Project
The phases of the project include measured documentation as first phase and detailed technical report of Frere Hall as second phase, in collaboration with FNMH Architecture.
Duration of first phase of this work was from May 2011 to Sept. 2011 and it completed by that time. The second phase work has started in Feb. 2012 and is in progress.
Hamdard Matab Restoration and Renovation Works Project
The project is divided into three phases i.e detailed documentation and detailed report with proposals, for repair/ maintenance, restoration and renovation works.
The first phase commenced in Oct. 2010 and completed in Nov. 2011. The second and third phase have commenced in Dec. 2011and are in progress.
Existing Elevation of Hamdard Matab
Elevation Proposal (Final)-Model
Asian Coalitions for Housing Rights (ACHR) Project
Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) by Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA) has recently approved funding for research proposal, submitted by HC-DAPNED to undertake active research in three identified historic building clusters of Karachi. In order to investigate ground realities and getting feedback of associated communities to develop viable options for revitalization of the respective clusters of Karachi.
The expected commencement and completion dates for this project are March 2012 and Sept. 2012 respectively.
Documentation of Heritage in Shikarpoor
Shikarpoor Inventory Publication: An agreement has been signed with Sindh Endowment Fund Trust for sponsoring the publication of a two volumes compilation of inventories on the historic properties of Shikarpoor. A survey to update and do final verification of this compilation was undertaken in December 2010 and January -March 2011. The final draft of the publication manuscript was submitted to the Sindh Endowment Fund Trust in April 2011.
The Department of Culture has approved this work for notification and press notification is awaited now.
Sixth Seminar in Urban and Regional Planning
The Sixth Seminar on Urban and Regional Planning (URP) was held on Saturday, 26 March 2011 at NED Main Campus Auditorium with partial assistance from Higher Education Commission and Endowment Trust Funds for Cultural Heritage in Sindh. H.E. Hans-Christian Kint, Ambassador of Belgium to Pakistan attended the event as Chief Guest. Prof. Brian Goodey, Emeritus Professor at Oxford Brookes University was the key note speaker. Nine papers by international and national researchers were presented followed by panel discussions. Proceedings of the seminar have been published.
Karachi Land Management Study
Karachi Land Management Study is collaborative study by the Urban Research and Design Cell at Department of Architecture and Planning, NED University along with renowned Urban Planner Arif Hasan of Arif Hasan Associates, for the International Institute of Environment and Development (IIED) U.K.
The study is designed to document and analyze the availability, utilization and Management of land generally and provision of land for the poor specifically in the context of Karachi. The study covers administrative and legal aspects like laws & statutes related to land, land owning authorities, mechanism of provision of land etc. The study also tries to explore the market dynamics and its related actions like role of builders and developers, informal sector and financial institution that find housing in detail. The impact of both of the above interviewed aspects on the provision of land for poor for the accommodation and livelihood purposes. The study findings are based on literature reviews, interviews and socio-economic & physical surveys in many settlements scattered lengths and breadths of Karachi. The study also covers role of non-governmental organization as facilitators in the provision of land for the masses.
This work has commenced in May 2011and following is its progress status.
Stage -1: literature reviews complete.
Stage-2: Socioeconomic and physical survey complete.
Stage-3: Interviews, questionnaires and the report draft complete.
Stage-4: Comprised on workshop that was held on Feb. 27, 2012. During this workshop the study has been concluded. Now the final report writing is being done.
Sustainable Cities Programme – Planning for 08 Cities of Pakistan
Under the One-UN Joint Program on Environment (JP‐E4), Un-Habitat leads the “Sustainable Urbanization Programme”, a component of the JP-E4. The program vision is to “build capacity to provide an effective and sustained improvement in urban poor living conditions, including urban issues relating to climate change”.
For this objective Un-Habitat selected eight (08) Secondary cities of Pakistan with the objective To improve lives and living conditions in urban slums through the collection of data, preparation of participatory urban plans, reinforcement of municipality capacities and implementation of demonstrative projects reducing urban poor vulnerability. The Department of Architecture and Planning NED-UET is responsible for achieving the objectives of the Sustainable urbanization project in Pakistan and was given the following tasks:
1. Establishment of baseline data and mapping on critical urban issues.
2. Creating multi stakeholder based mechanisms for participatory urban planning and management.
3. Designing Demonstration projects to improve indicators of informal settlement dwellers.
This work has commenced in March 2011 and following is its status of progress.
Stage -1: literature reviews and background study completed.
Stage-2: Socioeconomic and physical survey, completed.
Stage-3: Interviews, questionnaires and the report draft completed.
Stage-4: Stakeholders Workshops, completed
Stage-5: Final report writing, Administrative completion (in progress)