DETAILED CONTENTS OF COURSES FOR B.ENGG. PROGRAMME
MM-101: INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Introduction to engineering materials, their scope and role in industrial development, raw materials for engineering materials: their availability and demand, fundamentals of engineering materials: atomic bonding, crystal structures of metals, introduction to polymers, ceramic and composite materials. Processing, properties and applications of metallic, polymeric, ceramic and composite materials. An introduction to new breeds of engineering materials e.g., shape memory materials, smart materials, electrical, magnetic and optical materials. Materials of aerospace and transportation industries.
EE-116: PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Electric and Magnetic Circuits:
Circuits Sources and Elements, Ohm’s Law, Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance, Fundamental Circuit Laws, Kirchhoff’s Laws, Direct application of Fundamental Laws to simple resistive networks, Introduction to node Voltage and Loop current methods, Network Theorems, Star / mesh transformation, Magnetic Circuit, Series and Parallel Circuit, Principles of Calculation of ampere turn.
AC Single Phase and Poly phase Systems:
Single Phase systems, Series, Parallel and series parallel circuits, J operator method and polar method. Resonance and measurement of power and power factor. Poly phase systems, Poly phase generation, Star and Delta connections, Voltage and current relations, measurement of power and power factor, Balanced load analysis.
Construction and principle of DC machine, Simple lap and wave windings, Concept of annature reaction and commutation Cross and demagnetizing ampere turns, DC Generators, Types emf equation, Losses, Efficiency principle Back EMF, Speed and speed regulation. Types, Characteristics, Performance curves, Losses and efficiency, Speed and torque problems involving magnetization curve, charging and Ignition circuits of automobiles.
AC Synchronous Machines:
Working Principle and Construction, Stator single layer, Double layer and concentric windings, Damping windings, Coil Span factor, Distribution factor, Leakage and armature reaction, Synchronous impedance. Alternators, Types, EMF equation, speed ad frequency, Losses and efficiency, Alternator and load, Voltage regulation by synchronous impedance method, Synchronous Motors, Types, Principle of working, Vector diagram on load and its analysis for stator current, Power factor, torque and mechanical output. Effect of Variation of excitation, Losses and efficiency.
AC Induction Machines:
Principle of induction Motors construction, Types, Rotating field theory, Principle of working, Slip and its effect on motor current quantities. Losses, efficiency and performance curves. Starting, Full load and maximum torque relations, Torque slip characteristics.
Construction, Principle of working, EMF equation, Transformation ratios, No load working and vector diagram, Magnetizing current, Vector diagram on load, Equivalent circuit, Open circuit and short circuit tests, Losses, Efficiency and performance curves, All day efficiency, Percentage and per unit R, X and Z. Voltage regulation.
Rectifiers and Applications:
Rectification, Half Wave and Full Wave Rectifiers simple treatment, Elementary concept of amplification with transistor used as amplifier in common emitter configuration.
Study SkillsAdvanced reading skills using (e.g. text related to such issues as ILO laws environment / resettlement / rehabilitation etc.).Listening and Speaking Oral communication Skills Development. Precis writing, controlled & guided writing: Essay writing.Writing book and informal Report, Informal letters and memos. Grammar rules and their applications for writing coherently and correctly in English.
HS-105: PAKISTAN STUDIES
An Outline of Emergence of Pakistan:
A brief historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent. War of Independent 1857 and Aftermatch. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Development of Two Nation Theory. Formation of Muslim League. Lucknow Pact. Khilafat & Non-Cooperation Movement. Political Events from 1924 to 1937. Pakistan Resolution - Struggle for Pakistan from 1940 to 1947. Emergence of Pakistan.
Land of Pakistan:
Geophysical conditions, Territorial situation and its importance, Natural Resources - Mineral and Water.
Early effects to make constitution - Problems and issues. Constitution of 1956 and its abrogation. The constitution of 1962 and its annulment. Constitutional and Political Crisis of 1971; The constitution of 1973. Recent constitutional developments.
Post Independence Development:
Education in Pakistan; Planning & Development in the Field of Education. Development of Science and Technology with special reference to Engineering and Architecture.
Brief survey of Pakistan Economy:
Industrial and Agricultural Development. Internal and external trade. Economic planning and prospects.
Cultural Development in Pakistan:
Definition, Contents and Contributing factors in culture, Development of Art, Philosophy and literature.
Relations with neighbors, Super powers and the Muslim World.
HS-127: PAKISTAN STUDIES (FOR FOREIGNERS)
Land of Pakistan:
Land & People –Strategic importance – Important beautiful sights – Natural resources (some portion of economics of Pakistan)
A brief Historical Background:
A brief historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent – British rule & its impacts – Indian reaction – Two nation theory Origin and development – Factors leading towards the demand of a separate Muslim state – Creation of Pakistan.
Government & Political Development in Pakistan:
Constitution of Pakistan – A brief outline – Governmental structure Federal and Provincial – Local Government Institutions – Political History a brief account.
Pakistan & the Muslim World:
Relations with the Muslim countries.
Language and Culture:
Origins of Urdu Language - Influence of Arabic & Persian on Urdu Language & Literature - A short history of Urdu literature - Dominant Culture features.
ME-101: ENGINEERING MECHANICS
Statics of Particles:
Forces in a plane; Newton’s First Law, Freebody diagram; Forces in space (rectangular components); Equilibrium of a particle in space.
Kinematics of Particles:
Rectilinear and curvilinear motion of particles; Components of velocity and acceleration; Motion relative to a frame in translation.
Kinetics of Particles:
Newton’s Second Law; Dynamic equilibrium; Rectilinear and curvilinear motion; Work and energy; Kinetic energy of particle; Principle of Work and Energy; Conservation of energy; Impulse and momentum; Impulsive forces and conservation of momentum; Impact, direct and oblique; Conservation of angular momentum.
Equivalent systems of forces; Principle of transmissibility; Moment of a force; Couple; Varignons Theorem. Centre of gravity of a three-dimensional body and centroid of a volume. Moments of inertia, radius of gyration, parallel axis theorem.
Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies:
Free-body diagram; Equilibrium in two and three dimensions; Reaction of supports and connections; Equilibrium of two-force and three-force bodies.
Kinematics of Rigid Bodies:
General Plane motions; Absolute and relative velocity and acceleration.
Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies:
Forces and acceleration; Energy and momentum; Conservation of linear and angular momentum.
Laws of dry friction; Angles of friction; Wedges; Square-threaded screws; Journal and thrust bearings; Belt friction.
Analysis of Structures:
Internal forces and Newton’s Third Law; Simple and space trusses; Joints and sections; Frames and machines. Forces in cables.
ME-102: ENGINEERING DRAWING
Drawing equipment and the use of instruments; Basic drafting techniques and standards; Geometrical curves including plane curves; Cycloid; Hypocycloid and Involute.
Intersections at various positions of geometrical bodies such as prisms, pyramids, cylinders and cones, Development of surfaces of prisms, pyramids, cylinders and cones.
Freehand sketching of machine and engine components, Locking arrangements; Foundation bolts; Stuffing box; Shaft couplings; Foot step bearing; Pulleys; Engine connecting rod.
Concept of working drawing of component parts of machines and engines Size description, dimensions and specifications; Limit dimensioning and geometric tolerancing; Limits; Fits and tolerances; Conventional symbols.
Sectioning of machine and engine components; Orthographic projections and standard practices, Isometric views with particular reference to piping and ducting.
ME-104: WORKSHOP PRACTICE
Use of carpenter’s tools, Exercise in preparing simple joints, Bench fitting practice, Exercise in marking and fittings; Use of measuring instruments.Smith’s forge; Exercise in bending, upsetting and swaging.Familiarizing the students with the following processes:Soldering and brazing, Welding, Heat treatment, Moulding and casting.Simple machine shop processes, such as turning, shaping, milling and sheet metal work.
ME-108: FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL-FLUID ENGINEERING
Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering. Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics. Properties of Pure Substances. Energy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass. The First Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy. Introduction to Fluids Mechanics. Fluid Statics. Bernoulli and Energy Equations. Momentum Analysis of Flow Structures. Flow in Pipes. Mechanics of Heat Transfer. Steady Heat Conduction Lumped Capacitance Method For Transient Conduction. Forced Convection. Natural Convection. Radiation Heat Transfer.
MS-121: APPLIED PHYSICS
Scientific notation and significant figures. Types of errors in experimental measurements. Units in different systems. Graphical Techniques (Log, semi-log and other non-linear graphs)
Review of vectors, Vector derivatives. Line and surface Integrals. Gradient of a scalar.
The limits of Mechanics. Coordinate systems. Motion under constant acceleration, Newton laws and their applications. Galilean invariance. Uniform circular motion. Frictional forces. Work and Energy. Potential Energy. Energy conservation. Energy and our Environment. Angular momentum.
Electrostatics and Magnetism:
Coulombs Law. Electrostatic potential energy of discrete charges. Continuous charge distribution. Gauss’s Law. Electric field around conductors. Dielectrics. Dual trace oscilloscope with demonstration.
Magnetic fields. Magnetic force on current. Hall effect. Biot-Savart Law. Ampere’s Law. Fields of rings and coils. Magnetic dipole. Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism and Ferromagnetism.
Energy levels in a semiconductor. Hole concept. Intrinsic and Extrinsic regions. Law of Mass Action. P-N junction.
Transistor. Simple circuits.
Waves and Oscillations:
Free oscillation of systems with one and more degrees of freedom Solution for Modes. Classical wave equation. Transverse modes for continuous string. Standing waves. Dispersion relation for waves. LC network and coupled pendulums. Plasma oscillations.
Optics and Lasers:
Harmonic traveling waves in one dimension .Near and far fields. Two-slit interference. Huygens Principle. Single-slit diffraction. Resolving power of optical instruments. Diffraction Grating.
Lasers. Population inversion. Resonant cavities. Quantum efficiency. He-Ne, Ruby and CO2 lasers. Doppler effect and sonic boom.
Inadequacy of classical physics, Planck’s explanations of black body radiation Photoelectric effect, Compton effect. Bohr theory of Hydrogen atom, Atomic spectra, Reduce mass, De-Broglie hypothesis Braggs Law, Electron microscope, Uncertainty relations Modern atomic model, .Zeeman effect, Atomic nucleus, Mass-energy relation, Binding energy, Nuclear forces and fundamental forces, Exponential decay and half-life. Radioactive equilibrium in a chain, Secular equilibrium, Nuclear stability, Radiation detection instruments, Alpha decay, Beta decay, Gamma decay attenuation Nuclear radiation hazards and safety, Medical uses of Nuclear Radiation. Fission, Energy release. Nuclear Reactors. Breeder Reactor. Nuclear Fusion.
CY-105: APPLIED CHEMISTRY
Gas Laws, Kinetic Gas Equation, Van der Waal's Equation, critical phenomenon, liquidification of gases, specific heat (molar heat capacity).
Properties of Solution & Liquids:
Surface Tension, Viscosity, Osmosis, Osmotic Pressure, pH-Buffer Solution, Spectrophotometer, Basic concepts of Colloidal Chemistry, classification purification (dialysis).
Chemical Thermodynamics, Hess' Law, Heat of reaction, Relation between H and U measurement of heat reaction, Bomb Calorimeter.
Laws of Electrolysis, E.M.F. series, corrosion (Theories, inhibition & protection).
Water and Sewage:
Sources of water, impurities, hardness, water softening, purification of water for potable and industrial purposes, electrodialysis. Introduction to environmental pollution; main sources and effects. Sewage treatment.
Types of fuels, classification of fossil fuels.
Metals & Alloys:
Properties and general composition of metals and alloys such as Iron, Copper, Aluminum, Chromium, Zinc used in engineering field.
Inorganic Engineering materials: Cement, Glass. Organic Engineering Materials: Polymers, Rubbers, Plastics, and Paints. Semiconductors and Dielectric materials.
Determination of total alkalinity of a given sample; Determination of total acidity of a given sample; Determination of the amount of ferrous ion in a given sample; Determination of total hardness of a given sample of water; Determination of surface tension of a given sample; Determination of coefficient of a given sample; Determination of chloride ion in a given sample; Determination of Bicarbonate and Carbonate ions in a given sample; Determination of turbidity in a given sample by precipitation; Determination of turbidity in a given a sample by spectrophotometer; Plotting of titration curve and determination of total alkalinity in a given sample; Plotting of titration curve and determination of acidity in a given sample; Plotting a calibration cure and determination of ions present in a given sample.
Set and Functions:
Define rational, irrational and real numbers; rounding off a numerical value to specified number of decimal places or significant figures; solving quadratic, and rational in equalities in involving modulus with graphical representation; defination of set: set operations, venn diagrams, De-Morgan’s laws, Cartesian product, relation, function and their types (Absolute value, greatest integer and combining functions). Graph of some well-known functions. Limit of Function and continuous and discontinuous functions with graphical representation.
Definition of proposition, statement and argument, logical operators, simple and compound proposition various types of connectives, truth table, tautology, contradiction, contingency & logical equivalence.
Definition, Boolean function, quality, some basic theorems & proofs, to evaluate Boolean algebra, truth functions, Canonical sum of product form, Digital logic Gates & Switching circuit designs.
Argand diagram, De Moivre formula, root of polynomial equations, curve and regions in the complex plan, slandered functions and their inverses (exponential, circular and hyperbolic function.)
Differentiation and Successes differentiation and its application; leibnitz theorem. Taylor and Maclaurin theorem with remainders in Cauchy and Lagrange form, power series, Taylor and Maclaurin series, L. Hopital rule, extreme values of a function of one variable using first and second derivative test, asymptotes of a function, curvature and radius of curvature of a curve, partial differentiation, exact differential and its applications in computing errors, extreme values of a function of two variables with an without constant. Solution of non-linear equation, using Newton Raphson Methods.
Indefinite integral and their computational techniques, reduction formulae, define integral and their convergence. Beta and Gamma functions and their indefinites, applications of integration. Centre of pressure and depth of centre of pressure.
Coordinate Systems in three dimensions. Direction cosines and ratios, vector equation of a straight line, plane and sphere, curve tracing of a function of two and three variables.
MM-201: PHYSICAL METALLURGY
Basic principles of chemistry and physics applied to structure of materials, especially metals and alloys. Crystal structure of materials, Space lattice, Crystal system, Unit cell, Packing density, Coordination number, Allotropy, Rotational and Reflection Symmetries, Crystal planes and direction, Crystalline defects, Twining,
Phase transformations in metals, glasses and organic materials. Elementary physical chemistry of phases, phase diagrams and phase rule application, Binary system, Ternary system, Solid Solution, Interstitial solid solution and Substitutional solid solution, Factor affecting the limit of solubility, Ordered and Disordered solutions, diffusion in solids, structure of interfaces, nucleation and growth, Crystallization, solidification, Grain boundaries, Grain size, Cast structure, Segregation, Shrinkage defects, Solid state transformations, Iron -Carbon Diagram, Microstructure and properties of steel and Cast Iron, pearlitic, bainitic, massive and order-disorder transformations, precipitation. Elementary treatment of martensitic transformation, iron-carbon system, and heat-treatment of steels.
Microstructure of Copper based and Aluminum based alloys and their relationship to the properties, Metallurgical Microscope, Objectives lenses and their short comings, Polarized light microscopy. Microstructure of plastics, polymers, rubbers and composites.
MM-202: PRODUCTION AND REFINING OF MATERIALS
Principles related to iron and steel making from ores, New trends in iron and steel making, Blast furnace chemistry, operations and productivity, Wrought Iron and sponge Iron. Direct reduction processes of iron making, Description of steel making processes, chemistry of steel making, Bessemer and electric steel making operations and productivity, Secondary steel making process, e.g., AOD, VOD, ESR, VAR. Non-conventional techniques of iron and steel making.
Overview of the production and refining processes of non-ferrous materials. Extraction of of Cu, Ni, Al, Zn, Mg, Pb and Sn from ores. Pyro- and hydro- metallurgical process of refining. Special methods used for Rare earth materials. Introduction to synthesis and production processes for rubbers, plastics and composites materials.
MM-203: MELTING AND CASTING OF MATERIALS
Introduction to melting and casting Practice, Scope and importance of the subject with reference to metallic and non-metallic materials, plant layout,
Types of pattern, pattern making, shrinkage and contraction allowances. Selection of suitable moulding and core materials, Properties of molding and core materials, Analysis, testing and control of molding and core materials requirements. Tooling, equipment, machines and types of furnaces used in melting of materials, Re-melting furnaces i.e. pit furnaces, induction melting furnaces, cupola furnaces, electric resistance furnaces. Selection and control of melting processes, control of chemical compositions and charge calculations. Casting and fettling operations, Casting Defects: Causes and their remedies, inspection and quality assurance, Casting Techniques, Investment casting, Die-casting. Use of computers in casting. Introduction to new advanced casting techniques for materials. Special methods used for re-melting of plastics and rubbers parts.
MM-204: ENGINEERING CERAMICS AND REFRACTORY MATERIALS
Types and classification of engineering ceramics. Traditional ceramics, brick and tile, refractory and insulating materials, china, porcelain, enamels, abrasives, cements, coordination number, interstitial sites, solid solutions, types of transformations, silica and silicate structures, mullite and spinels, glass and glass processing, glass ceramics, Advanced structural ceramics, oxide ceramics, nitride ceramics, fracture toughness, micro crack formation, high temperature application of ceramics, processing of ceramics, shaping and binding, molding, firing, sintering.
Refractories: Raw materials for refectories such as fire clay, china clay, silica materials, alumina, magnesite, dolomite, chromite, graphite, carbon materials, Zirconia, classification of refractories. Manufacturing, testing, and use of basic, neutral, acid, and specialty refractories. Relationship between physical properties of various refractories. Selection and use of refractories in materials and metallurgical industry. Application and selection methods, manufacturing of refractories for ferrous and non ferrous industrial furnaces.
MM-205: MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Review mechanics of materials. Deformation; strain; elastic stress-strain behavior of materials; Introduction to stress-strain diagram, working stresses, unit design, Introduction to elastic and nonlinear continua. Poisson’s ratio; Determination of forces in frames; Simple bending theory; general case of bending; Shear force and bending moment diagrams; Relationship between loading, shear force and bending moment. Stress; Skew (antisymmetric) bending Direct, shear, hydrostatic and complementary shear stresses; Bar and strut or column; Theory of buckling instability, Thin ring, Elementary thermal stress and strain; General stress-method. Theory of elasticity, Analytical solution of elasticity problems brittle fracture. strain energy in tension and compression.
Analysis of bi-axial stresses, principal planes, principal stress-strain, stresses in thin walled pressure vessels. Mohr’s circles of bi-axial stress. Torsion of circular shafts, coiled helical spring, strain energy in shear and torsion of thin walled tubes, torsion of non-circular sections. Shear centre and shear flow for open sections, General case of plane stresses, principal stress in shear stresses due to combined bending and torsion plane strain. Composite materials, Volume dilatation, Theories of Yielding, Thin Plates and Shells Stress Concentration
MM-206: MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR MATERIALS
Scope and importance of manufacturing processes for metallic and non metallic materials in Pakistan, Fundamentals; Classification of mechanical working processes, Stress pressure, Mechanism of plastic deformation, Theory of dislocations, work hardening, Hot working & cold working. Hot working processes: forging, Open die hammer forging, Die drop forging, Press forging, Upset forging, Roll forging, Near net shape forging; Extrusion, Extrusion methods, Extrusion of hollow shapes; Hot drawing; Hot spinning; tube drawing, Pipe welding, & piercing. Cold working processes; Squeezing, Bending, Shearing, & Drawing processes such as Rolling, extrusion, Sizing, Riveting, Coining, Peening, Burnishing, Thread rolling, Angle bending, Roll bending, Roll forming, Seaming, Flanging, Straightening, Shearing, Blanking, Perforating, Notching, Nibbling, Shaving, Trimming, Bar & tube drawing, Wire drawing, Embossing & Stretch forming, sheet metal forming process, machining, rolling principles, rolling of ingot, bloom, billets, sheet and structural components, rolling of bars and rods, rolling mills design and calculations, manufacturing process and system design manufactures defects causes and remedies, quality control in manufacturing processes CAD/ CAM technology.
Introduction to Non-conventional manufacturing processes such as water jet cutting, and lashing cutting, tool design. Surface Measurement and inspection, telesurf tolerances and specification. Material Selection and design, overview, the selection of materials, service conditions materials and primary processes, Secondary manufacturing process, welding, machining, thermal treatment, finish Operations, Strength-to-density and modulus-to-density ratios, reading and using specifications, safety and reliability, quality control and quality assurance, help from the computer, prototypes and experimentation, Cost Analysis for a component, the recycling and reuse of materials. Applications of computers in manufacturing processes.
MM-207: QUALITY CONTROL
Fundamentals of Probability & Statistics:
Set theory & set operations; Venn diagram; Definition of probability; Probability laws; Conditional probability.
Deterministic & probabilistic data; Grouping of data; Measures of central tendency & dispersion; calculation of mean, mode, median; standard deviation, & range, weighted average, & coefficient of variation.
Random variable; discrete & continuous random variable; Mathematical expectation; Laws of expectation.
Discrete probability distributions: Uniform, Binomial, Multinomial, Hyper geometric & Poisson distribution.
Continuous probability distributions: Normal & Exponential distributions; Transformation of variables; Random sampling; Sampling distribution of mean; Central limit theorem.
Properties of the distribution of sample means, sample range estimation of standard deviation, chance and assignable causes, control charts for mean & range, control charts for mean & standard deviation, control charts for proportion defective & defects per assembly. Tests of significance to compute confidence limits.
Introduction, OC curve, consumer & producer risks, AQL & LTPD, sampling errors, acceptance sampling for continuous production, acceptance by variables, single, double, & sequential sampling.
Quality Control Procedures:
Introduction to standards. Familiarization of standards for testing of materials, ASTM,BS,JIS GOST and ISO. Pakistan Standards, Quality assurance for final products, Measures for quality control.
Conduction in Solids:
Introduction, mechanics of conduction, mobility. Bohr’s model for the elements, energy level diagrams for solids, conductors, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, electron-hole pairs in an intrinsic semiconductor, distribution of electron and hole in conduction and valence bands, recombination and lifetime.
Semiconductors and Diodes:
Donor and acceptor impurities, Zero biased, forward biased and reverse biased junction diodes, junction diode current equation, depletion barrier width and junction capacitance, diffusion capacitance, Zero and Avalanche break down, Hall effect, Fabrication of pn junction, diodes.
Electron Emission Devices:
Types of electron emissions, thermionic diode, volt ampere characteristics, Child Langmuin Power Law, Gas filled diode, Thermionic triode, Parameters and characteristics, Tetrode, Pentode, and beam power tubes , Parameters and characteristics.
Simple Diode Circuits and Applications:
Mathematical and graphical analysis of diode circuits, The ideal and non ideal diodes, Piecewise linear models, Analysis of piecewise linear models of vacuum tube and junction diodes, The half wave rectifier. The inductance filter, The inductance capacitance filter circuits, Zener and gas diode, Voltage regulator circuits, Clamping and DC restorer circuits, Voltage doubler circuits, Clipping and limiting circuits.
Bipolar and Field Effect Transistors:
Transistor biasing and thermal stabilization, The operating point, Bias stability, Collector to base bias, Fixed bias, Emitter feedback bias, Stabilization for the self biased circuits, Field effect transistors, Basic principles and theory, Types, FET characteristics, Different configurations-common gate, Common source and common drain, The FET, small signal model, Parameters, Biasing of the FET.
Introduction “h” parameters, Hybrid model for transistor, Elementary treatment, Low frequency transistor amplifier circuits, Stage cascaded LF.
HS-205: ISLAMIC STUDIES
Themetic Study of Holy Quran.
1.Basic Islamic Beleives
i) Tauheed: Al-Ambiya-22, Al-Baqarah-163-164
ii) Prophethood: Al-Imran-79, Al-Huda-7 Al-Maidah-3
iii) Here-After: Al-Hajj-5, Al-Baqarah-48
2. Basic Islamic Practices:
3. Amre-Bil-Ma'Roof Wa-Nahi Anil Munkar
The Concept of Good & Evil.
i) Importance & necessity of Da'Wat-e-Deen Al-Imran-llO.
ii) Method of Da'Wat-e-Deen. An-Nehl-125, Al-Imran-l04
4. Unity of the Ummah:
Al-Imran-l03, Al-Hujurat-l0, Al-Imran-64, AI-An'am-l08
Taha-8l, Al-A'raf-32-33, Al-Baqarah-188
i) Protcetion of Life: AI-Maidah-32
ii) Right to Property: An-Nisa-29
iii) Right of Respect & Dignity: AI-Hujurat-11-12
iv) Freedom of Expression: AI-Baqarah-256
v) Right of Equality: AI-Hujurat-13
vi) Economic Security: AI-Ma'arij-24-25
vii) Exployment Opportunity on Merit: An-Nisa-58
viii) Excession Right to Justics: An-Nisa-135
7 .Women Rights:
An-Nehl-97, AI-Ahzab-35, An-Nisa-O7
8. Relations With Non-Muslims:
Last sermon of Hajj at Arafat Translation & the important points of the sermon.
9. Serat Life of the Holv Prophet:
Birth, Life at Makkah.
Declaration of Prophethood, preaching & its difficulties migration to Madina. Brotherhood (Mawakhat) & Madina charter. The Holy War of the prophet
(Ghazwat-e-Nabawi) Hujjat-ul- Wida.
10. Islamic Civilization:
Impacts of Islamic civilization on the sub-continent. The civilization of sub- continent before Islam.
The Political, Social & Moral impacts of Islamic Civilization on sub-continent.
Academic, Intellectual, Social & Cultural Impacts of Islam on the World. *N .B : As prescribed by UGC. The original Text & complete course plan may be obtained from the Department of Humanities.
HS-206: ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR
Nature, Scope and methods of Ethics and religion. Ethical teachings of world religions. Basic Moral concepts, Right and wrong, Good and evil.
An outline of Ethical systems in philosophy; Hedonism, Utilitarianism, Rationalism and Kant. Self Realization Theories, Intuitionism.
Islam Moral Theory:
Ethics of Quran and its philosophical basis. Ethical precepts from Quran and Hadith and promotion of moral values in Society.
IM-207: COMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND DRAFTING
Introduction to programming concepts & languages, Compilation & Interpretation, Overview of modular programming, ASCII character set.
Identifiers and keywords, Data-types, Variables and Constants, Statements and Operators, Input and Output Functions.
Conditional branching and Looping (Counter and condition controlled loops).
A brief overview, Defining a subroutine, Accessing a subroutine, Passing arguments, Returning values and Recursion.
Arrays & Strings:
Defining an array, Referring to individual elements of an array, Processing an array, Multidimensional arrays, String handling and Manipulation, Overview of pointers.
Computer Aided Drafting:
Introduction, Application of computers in drafting and designing, Methods for creating drawing entities, Common editing features, Dimensioning with variable setting, Printing and Plotting.
MT-215: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND COMPLEX VARIABLES
Applications of simple convergence tests such as comparison, root, ratio, Raabe’s and Gauss’ tests on the behavior of series.
Ordinary Differential Equations:
Definitions, formation and solution. Boundary conditions. Homogeneous and Non-homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients, linear equations will variable coefficients. Cauchy’s and Legendre’s equations. Equations of second order. System of simultaneous linear equations with constant coefficients. Numerical approximation to solutions. Solution in Series. Simple applications in Engineering. Orthogonal trajectories.
Partial Differential Equations:
Formation of partial differential equations. Solution of first order linear and special types of second and higher order differential equations used in Engineering problems. Various standard forms.
Elementary transformations. Shifting Theorems. Heaveside’s expansion formula. Simple applications.
Limit, continuity, zeros and poles, Cauchy-Reimann Equations, conformal transformations, contour integration.
MM-301: CORROSION: PROTECTION AND PREVENTION
General concepts of corrosion applied to materials, corrosive environments, atmosphere, water, chemicals, gases, general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, oxygen concentration cell, atmospheric corrosion, chemical corrosion, corrosion in gas, types of scale, mechanism of scale protection, oxide, defect structure, oxidation rates, high temperature gas reactions, localized corrosion, pit and crevice corrosion. Mechanically assisted corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen damage, corrosion in ceramics and plastics, atmosphere water, chemical corrosion, corrosion prevention and protection. Chemical inhibiters, environmental control, anodic and cathodic protection, mechanical protection, coatings, anodizing, painting, corrosion resistant materials, corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, case studies.
Corrosion of metals: simple electrochemical theory, polarisation curves, activation and concentration polarisation; Evans diagrams, Passivity, pitting, localised corrosion, Common problems: galvanic corrosion, differential aeration, crevice corrosion, Corrosion Prevention: Cathodic protection, anodic protection, inhibitors, Paint; modes of protection, inhibitive and metallic pigments, Metal coatings; action, methods of application, Anodising of aluminium. Design and materials selection.
MM-302: CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUES
Overview and scope of crystallography techniques used in materials engineering. Production of X-Rays, Absorption of X-Rays, Use of filters, X-Ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, Structure factor calculations, X-ray scattering by atoms, crystal axes and reciprocal lattice, diffraction by small crystals,
Diffraction methods, the powder method, Debye-Scherrer, the Laue back /reflection and rotating crystal method, the rotation method, scattering by non crystalline form of matter, effect of temperature vibration on X-ray diffraction, x-ray studies of order-disorder, diffraction by imperfect crystals and perfect crystal theory, X-Ray diffractometer, Introduction to the crystal structure of materials. Symmetry, lattice directions and planes, crystal shapes, Crystal structure determination, Orientation of single crystal, Preferred orientation and Texture, Pole figures, Applications of X-Ray diffraction, Stereographic projections; Orientation of crystal with respect to a reference, Rotation of crystal around and axis, Planes of a zone. Practical examples of X-ray studies in materials engineering.
MM-303: INSPECTION AND TESTING OF MATERIALS
Introduction to inspection and testing of materials, its scope and importance. The Brinell test, the Vicker test, the Rockwell test, the Knoop test, the Scleroscope test, conversion tables for various scales of hardness. Stress and strain, load extension diagrams, modules of elasticity, elastic limit, yield stress, proof stress, work hardening, tensile testing, (equipment and specimens).
Compression testing, bend testing, torsion testing. impact testing. Toughness, brittleness and ductility, notched bar impact testing, the Charpy and Izod impact tests, brittle and ductile fractures. The fatigue test, different types of fatigue fractures, Goodman diagram, endurance limit-ultimate tensile strength. The Creep Test.
Overview of the main NDT techniques of materials testing, Visual, Ultrasonic, Penetrant, Magnetic particles and x-ray, and eddy current techniques, Example in NDT of materials.
Advanced techniques used for testing of plastics, rubbers, polymers and composite materials.
MM-304: HEAT TREATMENT OF MATERIALS
Introduction and scope of the heat treatment processes used for materials. Review of iron carbon phase diagram, Effect of common alloying additions on the equilibrium diagram, annealing and its types, Structures of slowly cooled steels. Specialized heat treatments including full annealing, normalizing, process annealing. Oxidation and decarburization during heat treatment, Batch and continuous annealing. Quenching, tempering and hardening of steel, quenching rates and quenching media, martensitic transformation, time temperature transformation diagrams, effects of austenizing, grain size and alloying element on the transformation diagram, continuous cooling diagrams.
Hardenability and its measurement, Jominy test. austempering, martempering, retained austenite, tempering of martensitic steel. secondary hardening, heat treatment of dies and tool steel, Alloy steels, HSLA steels, and stainless steels, surface hardening, carburizing, nitriding, cyaniding, carbonitriding, induction and Flame hardening, heat treatment of cast iron heat treatment of non ferrous metal and alloys, age hardening/precipitation hardening, defects caused during heat treatment and their remedies, subzero treatment.heat. Heat treatment of nonmetallic materials like polymers, plastics, rubbers and composites.
MM-305: POLYMER AND COMPOSITES MATERIALS
Survey and classification of polymeric materials. Review of polymer chemistry, introduction to polymers, classification of polymers, polymerization, co-polymerization, structure and properties of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, elastomers and rubber, vulcanization, additives and fillers.
Manufacturing, properties and applications of polymers, polystyrene, polybutadiene, polyester, polymethyl methylacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6:6, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), silicon resin, epoxy resin, phenol- formaldehyde and other advanced polymers, forming processes, testing and identification of polymers, fibers, foams and adhesives, Plastics, conductive polymers and plastics,
Introduction to Composite materials, classification characteristics, mechanical behavior potential advantages, properties and applications. Composite material design, specific stiffness and strength, and recent developments such as metal matrix composite, ceramic matrix composites, carbon fiber reinforced composite, production and processing of fibres and other reinforcements, polymeric matrix composites, processing principles and design of ply and laminate structures, filament winding and pultrusion.
MM-306: DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIALS
Overview of the deformation behaviours of materials. Introduction, concepts of Crystal Geometry, Lattice Defects, Deformation by Slip, Slip in a Perfect Lattice, Slip by Dislocation Movement, Critical Resolved Shear Stress for Slip, Deformation of Single Crystals, Deformation of Face-Centered Cubic Crystals, Deformation by Twinning, Stacking Faults, Deformation Bands and Kink Bands, Micro-strain Behaviour, strain Hardening of Single Crystals.
Introduction, Observation of Dislocations, Burgers Vectors and the Dislocation Loop, Dislocations in Face-Centered Cubic Lattice, Dislocations in the Hexagonal Close-Packed Lattice, Dislocations in the Body-Centered Cubic Lattice, Stress Fields and Energies of Dislocations, Forces on Dislocations Forces between Dislocations, Dislocation Climb, Intersection of Dislocations, Jogs, Dislocation Sources, Multiplication of Dislocations, Dislocation-Point Defect Interactions, Dislocation Pile-Ups. Introduction, Grain, Boundaries and Deformation, Strengthening from Grain Boundaries, Low Angle Grain Boundaries, Yield Point Phenomenon, Strain Aging, Cold Worked Structure, Strain Hardening, Annealing of Cold-Worked Metal, Bauschinger Effect, Effect of preferred orientation (Texture).
Mechanisms of deformation of materials like polymers, rubbers, plastics and composites.
MM-307: JOINING OF MATERIALS
Survey of joining processes for materials. Basis of selections and use of joining processes. Introduction to welding and joining, weld defects, selection of appropriate welding process, effect of heat on metals, pre heating, stress, strain, weldability, type of joints, types of welds, filler metals, welding problems, producing good weld. Gas welding and equipments, fluxes, torch gases hoses and hose conection, torches, mixers, welding tips, regulaters clamps outfits. Arc welding, power sources, DC and AC power sources, cables, electrodes, current and circuit polarity, electrode selection, weld deposit. TIG & MIG welding; Introduction, principles, non-consumable tungsten electrodes, gas supply and equipment, and TIG joint preparation, spot welding, electrode wire, gas supply, spray metal transfer method, CO2 – MIG welding, MIG spot welding.
Submerged arc and other shielded methods, equipment, current, flux, electrodes, atomic hydrogen welding, plasma arc welding electro slag welding under water shielded metals, arc welding, vapor shielded metal arc welding- CIG welding. Resistance welding, resistance spot welding, multiple spot welding, PIGME welding process, flash and upset welding, percussion welding.
Thermit welding, equipment techniques, process, ignition powder removing the mold inspection. Other welding processes; laser welding, electron beam welding, pressure welding, ultrasonic welding. solders principles, Equipment, fluxes, automatic soldering systems, soldering aluminum and aluminum alloys, magnesium and magnesium alloys, brazing, equipment, copper and copper alloys, aluminum brazing, dissimilar metals joining. Methods for joining of non-metallic materials, plastic welding, adhesive bonding, bonding materials, inspection and testing of weldment
Cold welding, adhesive bonding, diffusion bonding, soldering, brazing, flames, arcs, high-energy density heat sources, solidification, cracking resistance, shielding methods, and electric contacts.
HS-303: ENGINEERING ECONOMICS
Engineering economy defined; Measures of financial effectiveness; Nonmonetary factors and multiple. Objectives; principles of engineering economy.
The Economic Environment:
Consumer and producer goods; Measures of economic worth; Price, Supply, & Demand relationship; Production; Factors of production; Laws of return.
Cost Concepts Analysis:
Sunk & opportunity costs; Fixed, variable, and incremental costs; Recurring & nonrecurring costs; Direct, indirect, and overhead costs; Standard costs; Breakeven analysis; Unit cost of production; Cost-Benefit analysis; Feasibility studies; Value analysis in designing & purchasing.
Time Value of Money:
Simple interest; Compound Interest; Cash flow diagrams; Interest formulas; Nominal versus effective, interest rates; Continuous compounding.
Depreciation and Depletion:
Purpose of depreciation; Types of depreciation; Economic life. What can be depreciated?
Present economy; Selection among machines, materials, processes, and designs, Payback period method; Present worth method; Uniform annual cost method; Rate of return method; Alternatives having identical lives. Alternatives having different lives.
Production Concepts & Mathematical Models:
Manufacturing lead time, Production rate; Capacity; Utilization; Availability; Work in process; WIP and TIP ratios.
Mathematical statement of linear programming problems; Graphic solution; Simplex method; Duality problems.
Capital Financing and Budgeting:
Types of ownership; types of stock; partnership & joint stock companies; Banking & specialized credit institutions.
Labour problems; Labour organizations; Prevention & Settlement of disputes.
HS-304: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND ETHICS
Part-1 Communication Skills (Oral):
Definitions and Conditions. Modes:- verbal, non-verbal, vocal, non-vocal, sender, receiver, en-loding, decoding, noise, context, emotional maturity, relationships, etc. Language, perception. Non-verbal, body language, physical appearance, cultural differences etc. Personal and interpersonal skills/perceptions. Communication dilemmas and problems. Public Speaking – speaking situation, persuasion.
Part-II Written Communication:
Formal / Business letters. Memos (brief revision). Notice and minutes of meetings. Contracts and agreements (basic theoretical knowledge and comprehension). Research / scientific reports. Tenders (basic theoretical knowledge and comprehension). Participating in seminars, interviews, writing and presenting conference papers, solving IELTS type papers. (Non-examination).
Part-III Engineering / Business Ethics:
Course objective. Need for code of ethics. Type of ethics, involvement in daily life. Problems/conflicts/dilemmas in application. Review of Pakistan Engineering Council Code of Conduct.
ME-408: INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
Industrial Management & Systems:
Introduction to industrial management and administration; System concept; Functions of Management; Managerial decision making; Models as decision aids.
Factors affecting location; Multiplant location; Location analysis; Plant layout; Types of layout; Material handling consideration in layout; Internal and External balancing; product and process layout analysis; Layout comparison.
Production Planning and Control:
Product design, Pre-production planning, Production control for intermittent and continuous process; Production control charts; Machine arrangement problems; Control for maximum profit; Scheduling techniques.
Sampling risk and economics of sampling; OC curve and sampling plan, Average outgoing quality; Sampling methods; Attribute and variable sampling; Concept of control chart; Process Variability; P and R charts.
Process chart; Man-Material flow charts; Work station flow charts; Man-Machine charts. Motion study; Principles of motion economy; Applications; Simo chart.
Stop watch time study procedures; Timing methods; performance rating; Total normal time; Allowance factors; Continuous production study; Work sampling procedures; Predetermined motion time techniques. Wage incentive plan and job evaluation.
Planning & Control Techniques:
Inventory Control; Forecasting; Moving average and weight moving average; Functions of Inventory; Economics order quality model, its limitations, Economic lot size. Safety stock; Stock out cost; Inventory systems; Inventory system under uncertainty; Quantity discount; Theory; CPM/PERT.
MT-315: MATHEMATICAL METHODS
Rectangular Coordinate Systems in three dimension, direction cosines, plane (straight line) and sphere.
Taylor’s Theorem for functions of two variables without proof. Maxima and minima of functions of two variables. Lagrange’s method of multipliers.
Double integration, change of order, conversion to polar form. Applications in finding areas, volumes, centroids, centre of pressure. Movement of inertia and principal axes. Theorems of Pappus and Guldinus. Surface area and volumes of revolution.
Differentiation of vectors, gradient, divergence and curl. Laplacian and spherical harmonies. Vector integration. Theorems of Gauss, Green and Stokes. Simple applications.
Linear Algebra & Matrices:
Linearity, dependent and independent vectors, bases and dimension, vector spaces, fields, liner transformations, matrix of a linear transformation.
Basic definitions and matrix operations, adjoin and inverse of a 3 x 3 matrix. Rank of a matrix. Cayley-Hamiltion Theorem, eigen values. Applications in solving linear homogeneous and non-homogeneous equations in three unknowns. Cases of existence of solution, no solution, infinite and unique solutions.
Elements of Tensors:
Cartesian Tensors, understanding of stress tensor and deformation.
MM-401: MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES
Wet analysis, Microscopic characterisation, Optical microscopy, interference contrast, quantitative analysis. Image analysis, SEM and TEM principles and configuration, elastic and inelastic scattering, SE, BSE, imaging, WDS and EDS microanalysis, BSCP, TEM BF and DF contrast, diffraction patterns, STEM. Defect analysis, sample preparation, EPMA, field ion microscopy (AP-FIM) and concentration profiling. Scanning tunnelling, acoustic and atomic force microscopy, DTA, DSC and dilatometry, AES and SIMS, molecular spectroscopy, Electron micro probe analysis, Gas analysis by mass spectrometry.
MM-402: DESIGN AND SELECTION OF MATERIALS
Philosophy and practice of engineering selection of materials. Overview, the selection of materials, service conditions, materials and primary processes, secondary processes, welding, machining, thermal treatment, finishing operations, strength-to-density and modules-to-density ratios, reading and using specifications, safety and reliability, quality control and quality assurance, help from the computer, prototypes and experimentation, cost analysis for a component, the recycling and reuse of materials
Selection of materials for specific applications, designing for corrosion resistant service, concept of passivity, designing for wear resistant service, designing for high temperature service and designing for high strength/weight applications. Introduction to the aluminum, copper, nickel, cobalt, stainless steel, cast irons, titanium, refractory materials, rubber, plastics, polymers and composites materials systems. Coating science and selection.
Intelligent selection of materials for better design, manufacturing and performance. Case studies of real-life engineering problems and solutions.
MM-403: FRACTURE MECHANICS AND FAILURE ANALYSIS
Theories of creep and fatigue fracture mechanism in ductile and brittle materials. Brittle and ductile fracture comparison. The theoretical cohesive strength of solids. Stress concentration at a notch and at a crack. Plane stress and plane stain fracture toughness. Fracture toughness parameters and testing.
Fractography: Micro Mechanism of crack nucleation and propagation inter crystalline brittleness. Fracture mechanics in stress corrosion. Impact testing, characteristics of fracture observed in ductile and brittle material. The crack opening displacement approach and empirical methods for assessing crack propagation in thick sections.
MM-404: PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN MATERIALS
Phase transformation in materials. Equilibrium transformations; first order and second order, Order-disorder transitions, transformations in complex structures, Driving force for phase transformation, Free energy changes during phase transformation, Concept of Gibbs’s free energy, Volume free energy, and strain free energy Critical radius. Liquid-solid transformation, Solidification, Homogeneous nucleation; surfaces and interfaces; heterogeneous nucleation; polymer crystallization; nucleation rate; planar vs. dendritic interface growth; Gibbs-Thomson effect; dendrite velocity; alloy solidification; zone-refining; constitutional supercooling; solid-solid phase transformation; Nucleation & growth, homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, nucleation on crystalline defects and on grain boundaries. spinodal decomposition, Transformation in the Solid State Precipitation reactions, GP zones, Intermediate and stable precipitate, Coherency strain, Diffusion-controlled transformations. Interfacial energy-controlled transformations, e.g., transformations far from equilibrium conditions. Nano-scale particles. Diffusionless transformations. Ordered and disordered transformation, Recovery, crystallization and grain growth.
Phase transformations in non metallic materials and its effect on mechanical and physical properties. Transformations in glasses and organic materials.
MM-405: SURFACE COATINGS
Introduction to the physics and chemistry underlying the deposition of surface coatings (films) for a variety of applications. Emphasis on methods and processes rather than properties of the film which are covered in less detail. Diverse application topics will range from corrosion protection to decorative coatings and selective optical filters to microelectronics. Influence of proc esses and processing variables on materials properties, and importance of coating technologies in today's modern world.
Elements of physical chemistry of surfaces and interface bonding Advance coatings for friction/wear /abrasion/corrosion resistance. Coating technology PVD, CVD, electrochemical deposition, thermal spraying, and characterization of coatings.
MM-406: ELECTRONIC, MAGNETIC AND OPTICAL MATERIALS
Survey and classification of materials according to electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Classification of materials according to magnetic properties, origin of magnetic moment of atoms, theories of all types of magnetism. Magnetization curves, hysteresis, magnetic domains, domain walls, methods of observations of domains, soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, powder magnets. Materials for semiconductor devices and VLSI. Thin film technology, metalization, packaging, opto-electronic devices and solar cells.
MM-407: NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS
Introduction to Nanotechnology, Definitions, Size Effects, Atomic and Molecular Interactions, Measuring Nanostructures, Characterisation of nano materials, Scanning probe microscopies, Electron microscopies, Spectroscopies, Making Nanostructures, Top-down, Lithographies, Bottom-Up, Self-assembly, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnologies, Membranes, Catalysts, Making Nanoparticles, C60, Carbon Nanotubes, ISN at MIT Sensors, Biomedical, Optics and Electronics.
MM-408: HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS AND SUPERALLOYS
Overview of Elevated-Temperature Characteristics of Engineering Materials, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion. Industrial Applications of Heat-Resistant Materials. Properties of Superalloys, Metallurgy, Processing and Properties of Superalloys. Elevated-Temperature Corrosion of materials. Microstructural Instabilities. Protective Coatings Properties of Nonferrous Heat-Resistant Materials. Refractory Metals and Alloys. Structural Intermetallics Ceramics Carbon-Carbon Composites. Analysis and Design Assessment of Creep-Rupture Data. Thermomechanical Fatigue of Structural materials. Elevated-Temperature Crack Growth. Creep-Fatigue Interaction. Materials design for Elevated Temperature Applications. Design for Oxidation Resistance, Creep, thermal fatigue, oxidation, high temperature corrosion, erosion., Ageing, structural changes, material damage, Crack propagation, damage mechanics, life time analysis, Creep resistant steels, superalloys, ceramics and polymers for high temperature applications, intermetallics, Usage of high strength steels. Spring materials. Fatigue, Evaluation of property data, extrapolation.
Plastics and composites materials for high temperature applications.
MM-409: BIOMEDICAL AND FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Introduction to biomaterials, Basic physical and chemical properties of biomaterials, including metals, ceramics, and polymers, as they are related to their manipulation by the engineer for incorporation into living system. Introduction to the interactions between proteins, cells and surfaces of biomaterials. Surface chemistry and physics of selected metals, polymers and ceramics, modification of biomaterials surfaces, and surface characterization methodology; Role of microstructure properties in the choice of biomaterials and design of artificial organs, implants, and prostheses. Application of magnetic materials. Surface coatings Biomaterials, Topics in biosensors, drug delivery and tissue engineering.
Introduction to Functional materials: To gain deep knowledge about materials which are not primarily used for their mechanical properties but for other properties such as physical. To know what "functions" can be built into the materials and how to maximise their performance.
Specific properties of functional materials are covered, which are used in high-tech applications. Shape memory metals, Invar alloys, Magnetic material, Electric contact material, Conducting thermoplastics and polymer composites,
MM-410: MATERIALS ENGINEERING PROJECT
IM-414: INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Understanding accident and hazard, Hazard control and loss control, Company policy and management responsibilities, Direct and indirect cost, Accident causes and their control, Principles and processes of lost control, Knowledge of existing safety codes and standards.
Accident Prevention and Control:
Fire safety, Electrical Safety, Safety in boilers and unfired pressure vessels and high pressure systems, Safety in material handling and storage, Safety in production operations (hand portable power tools, Wood working machinery, welding and cutting, metal working machinery, cold and hot forming of metals, automated lines system and processes).
Process Safety Management:
Development of facility operation and procedures, Analysis of process hazard, Permit to work systems, Hazard communication (Material safety data sheet), Chemical inventory record, Accident reporting and investigation, Ensuring mechanical integrity,
Industrial Hygiene and Workers Protection:
Understanding industrial hygiene, Various hazards encountered in workplace, Types of personal protective equipment (PPE), Availability in market their design standards and selection criteria.
Environment pollution, Air emission management, Waste management, Waste water treatment and control, Soil and ground water protection, Introduction to Pakistan Environment Protection Act 1997 and National Environmental Quality Standards, Key elements of ISO 14000.