PH-101 MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Changing Units, Scalars and Vectors, Adding Vectors: Graphical as well as Component Method, Multiplying Vectors: Dot and Cross Products, Position & Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration, Motion under Constant Acceleration, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion, Relative Velocity and Acceleration in One and Two Dimensions, Inertial and Non-Inertial Reference Frames, Newton’s Laws of Motion and their Applications involving some particular forces including Weight, Normal Force, Tension, Friction, and Centripetal Force, Newton’s Law of Gravitation, Gravitational Potential Energy, Escape Velocity, Kepler’s Laws, Satellite Orbits & Energy, Work done by Constant and Variable Forces: Gravitational and Spring Forces, Power, Conservative and Nonconservative Forces, Work and Potential Energy, Isolated Systems and Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Work Done by External Forces including Friction and Conservation of Energy, Motion of a System of Particles and Extended Rigid Bodies, Center of Mass and Newton’s Laws for a System of Particles, Linear Momentum, Impulse, Momentum & Kinetic Energy in One and Two Dimensional Elastic and Inelastic Collisions, Rotation about a Fixed Axis, Angular Position, Angular Displacement, Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration, Rotation under Constant Angular Acceleration, relationship between Linear and Angular Variables, Rotational Inertia, Parallel-axis Theorem, Torque and Newton’s Law for Rotation, Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy, Power, Rolling Motion, Angular Momentum for a single Particle and a System of Particles, Conservation of Angular Momentum, Precession of a Gyroscope, Static Equilibrium involving Forces and Torques, Determination of moment of inertia of various shapes i.e. for disc, bar and solid sphere, Angular Velocity, Conservation of angular momentum, effects of Torque and its relation with angular momentum, Elastic Properties of Matter, Physical basis of elasticity, Tension, Compression & shearing, Elastic Modulus, Elastic limit. Poisson’s ratio, Relation between three types of elasticity, Fluid Statics, Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere, Surface Tension, Physical basis; role in formation of drops and bubbles, Viscosity, Physical basis, obtaining the Coefficient of viscosity, practical example of viscosity; fluid flow through a cylindrical pipe (Poiseulle's law).
Recommended Books:
- D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, “Fundamentals of Physics”, John Wiley & Sons, 9th ed. 2010.
- R. A. Serway and J. W. Jewett, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers”, Golden Sunburst Series, 8th ed. 2010.
- R. A. Freedman, H. D. Young, and A. L. Ford (Sears and Zeemansky), “University Physics with Modern Physics”, Addison-Wesley-Longman, 13th International ed. 2010.
- D. C. Giancoli, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers, with Modern Physics”, Addison-Wesley, 4th ed. 2008.
PH-102 HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamical systems, Surrounding and Boundaries, Type of systems, Macroscopic and microscopic description of system, Properties and state of the substance, Extensive and Intensive properties, Equilibrium, Mechanical and Thermal Equilibrium, Processes and Cycles, Isothermal, Isobaric and Isochoric. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Consequence of Zeroth law of Thermodynamics. The state of the system at Equilibrium, Temperature, Kinetic theory of ideal gas, Work done on an ideal gas, Internal energy of an ideal gas, Equipartition of Energy, Intermolecular forces, The Virial expansion, The Van der Waals equation of state, First law of thermodynamics and its applications to adiabatic, isothermal, cyclic and free expansion. Reversible and irreversible processes, Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot theorem and Carnot engine, Heat engine, Refrigerators, Calculation of efficiency of heat engines. Thermodynamic temperature scale, Absolute zero, Entropy, Entropy in reversible process, Entropy in irreversible process. Entropy and second law of thermodynamics, Entropy and Probability, Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell’s relations, TdS equations. Energy equations and their applications, Intrinsic and mutual stabilities of single component system, Conditions of stabilities, The Le Chatelier-Braun Principle, Phase transitions (latent heat), First order Phase transition, Discontinuities of Volume and Entropy, Second Order Phase Transition, Low Temperature Physics, Joule-Thomson effect and its equations, Thermocouple, Seabeck’s effect, Peltier’s effect, Thomson effect, Statistical distribution and mean values, Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean free path. Distribution of Molecular Speeds, Distribution of Energies, Maxwell distribution, Maxwell Boltzmann energy distribution, Internal energy of an ideal gas, Brownian Motion and Langevin equation, Qualitative description.
Recommended Books:
- D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, “Fundamentals of Physics”, John Wiley, 9th ed. 2010.
- M. W. Zemansky, “Heat and Thermodynamics”, McGraw Hill, 7th ed. 1997.
- B. N. Roy, “Principle of Modern Thermodynamics”, Institute of Physics, London 1995.
- M. Sprackling, “Thermal Physics” McMillan 1991.
PH-103 PHYSICS LAB-I
Experiments on Mechanics, Heat and Thermodynamics will be conducted..(see Appendix-A for list of experiments)
PH-104 WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS
Mass-Spring System, Simple Harmonic Oscillator Equation, Complex Number Notation, LC Circuit, Simple Pendulum, Quality Factor, LCR Circuit, Steady-State Behavior, Driven LCR Circuit, Transient Oscillator Response, Resonance, Two Spring-Coupled Masses, Two Coupled LC Circuits, Three Spring Coupled Masses, Normal Modes, Atomic and Lattice Vibrations, Transverse Standing Waves, Normal Modes, General Time Evolution of a Uniform String, Phase velocity, Group Velocity, Spring Coupled Masses, Sound Waves in an Elastic Solid, Sound Waves in an Ideal Gas, Standing Waves in a Finite Continuous Medium, Traveling Waves in an Infinite Continuous Medium, Energy Conservation, Transmission Lines, Reflection and Transmission at Boundaries, Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms, Bandwidth, Plane Waves, Three-Dimensional Wave Equation, Electromagnetic waves, Laws of Geometric Optics, Waveguides, Cylindrical Waves, Double-Slit Interference, Single-Slit Diffraction, Double-slit diffraction.
Recommended Books:
- J. Pain, “The Physics of Vibrations and Waves”, John Wiley, 6th ed. 2005.
- A. P. French, “Vibrations and Waves”, CBS Publishers (2003).
- A. Hirose, and K .E. Lonngren, “Introduction to Wave Phenomena”, Krieger Publications, 2003.
PH-105 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
Electric Charge, Conductors and Insulators, Coulomb’s Law, Electric Fields due to a Point Charge and an Electric Dipole, Electric Field due to a Charge Distribution, Electric Dipole in an Electric Field, Electric Flux, Gauss’ Law and its Applications in Planar, Spherical and Cylindrical Symmetry, Equipotential Surfaces, Potential due to a Point Charge and a Group of Point Charges, Potential due to an Electric Dipole, Potential due to a Charge Distribution, Relation between Electric Field and , Electric Potential, Energy, Parallel Plate, Cylindrical and Spherical capacitors, Capacitors in Series and Parallel, Energy Stored in an Electric Field, Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law , Electric Current and Current Density, Resistance and Resistivity, Ohm’s Law, Power in Electric Circuits, Semiconductors and Superconductors, Work, Energy, and EMF, Resistances in Series and Parallel, Single and Multiloop Circuits, Kirchhoff’s Rules, RC Circuits, Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor, Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields and their Applications, Hall Effect, Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire, Torque on a Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole Moment, Magnetic Field Due to a Current, Force between two Parallel Currents, Ampere’s Law, Biot-Savart Law: Magnetic Field due to a Current, Long Straight Wire carrying Current, Solenoids and Toroids, A current-carrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole, Inductance, Faraday’s Law of Induction, Lenz’s Law, Induction and Energy Transfers, Induced Electric Fields, Inductors and Inductances, Self Inductance, RL Circuits, Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field, Energy Density, Mutual Induction, LC Oscillations, Damped Oscillations in an RLC circuit, Alternating Currents, Forced Oscillations, Resistive, Capacitive, and Inductive Loads, RLC series Circuit, Power in AC Circuits, Transformers, Gauss’ Law for Magnetism, Induced Magnetic Fields, Displacement Current, Spin & Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Hysteresis.
Recommended Text Books:
- D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, “Fundamentals of Physics”, John Wiley & Sons, 9th ed. 2010.
- R. A. Serway and J. W. Jewett, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers”, Golden Sunburst Series, 8th ed. 2010.
- R. A. Freedman, H. D. Young, and A. L. Ford (Sears and Zeemansky), “University Physics with Modern Physics”, Addison-Wesley-Longman, 13th International ed. 2010.
- D. C. Giancoli, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers, with Modern Physics”, Addison-Wesley, 4th ed. 2008.
- F. J Keller, W. E. Gettys and M. J. Skove, “Physics: Classical and Modern, McGraw Hill. 2nd ed. 1992.
PH-106 PHYSICS LAB-II
Experiments on Waves, Oscillation, Electricity and Magnetism will be conducted.(see Appendix-B for list of experiments)
PH-201 OPTICS
Huygens’ Principle, Fermat’s Principle, Laws of Reflection and Refraction, Refraction at a Spherical Surface, Thin Lenses, Newtonian Equation for a Thin Lens, Ray Transfer Matrices, Thick Lens, Significance of System Matrix Elements, Cardinal Points of an Optical System with examples, Optical Instruments including Simple Magnifiers, Telescopes and Microscopes, Chromatic and Monochromatic Aberrations, Spherical Aberrations, Coma, Distortion, Stops, Pupils, Windows, Standing Waves, Beats, Phase and Group Velocities, Two-Beam and Multiple-Beam Interference, Thin Dielectric Films, Michelson and Fabry-Perot Interferometers, Resolving Power, Free-Spectral Range, Linear, circular and elliptical polarization, Jones Matrices, Production of Polarized Light, Dichroism, Brewster’s Law, Birefringence, Double Refraction, Electro-optic and magneto-optic effects, Fraunhoffer Diffraction from a Single Slit, Rectangular and Circular Apertures, Double Slit, Many Slits, Diffraction Grating, Dispersion, Resolving Power Blazed Gratings, Zone Plates, Rectangular Apertures, Temporal Coherence, Spatial Coherence, Holography of a Point object and an Extended Objects, Stimulated Emission, Population Inversion, Resonators, Threshold and Gain, Multilayered Dielectric Films.
Recommended Books:
- C. A. Bennett, “Principles of Physical Optics”, John Wiley, 2008.
- E. Hecht and A. Ganesan, “Optics”, Dorling Kindersley, 4th ed. 2008.
- F. Pedrotti, L. S. Pedrotti and L. M. Pedrotti, “Introduction to Optics”, Pearson Prentice Hall, 3rd ed. 2007.
- K. K Sharam, “Optics: Principles and Applications”, Academic Press, 2006.
- M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, “Optics”, John Wiley, 2nd ed. 1986.
PH-202 MODERN PHYSICS
Black body radiation, Stefan Boltzmann, Wien’s and Planck’s law, consequences. The quantization of energy, Photoelectric and Compton effect, Line spectra, Explanation using quantum theory. Wave behaviour of particle (wave function etc.) its definition and relation to probability of particle, de ’Broglie hypothesis and its testing, Davisson Germer Experiment and J.P. Thomson Experiment, Wave packets and particles, localizing a wave in space and time, Bohr’s theory (review), Frank-Hertz experiment, energy levels of electron, Atomic spectrum, Angular momentum of electrons, Vector atom model, Orbital angular momentum. Spin quantization, Bohr’s Magnetron. X-ray spectrum (continuous and discrete) Moseley’s law, Pauli’s exclusion principle and its use in developing the periodic table.
Recommended Books:
- Paul A. Tipler and Ralph A. Llewellyn, “Modern Physics”, W H Freeman and Company 6th ed. 2012.
- R.A. Serway, C.J. Moses and C.A. Moyer, “Modern Physics”, Brooks Cole, 3rded. 2004.
- R. M. Eisberg and R. Resnick, “Quantum Physics of Atoms, molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles”, John Wiley, 2nd ed. 2002.
- Arthur Beiser, “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw-Hill, 6th ed. 2002.
PH-203 PHYSICS LAB-III
Experiments on Optics and Modern Physics will be conducted.(see Appendix-C for list of experiments)
PH-204 INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL SCIENCE
The packing of atoms in 2-D and 3-D, unit cells of the hexagonal close packing (hcp) and cubic closed packing (ccp) structures, interstitial structures, density computation, lattices and symmetry elements, indexing lattice directions and lattice planes, interplanar spacing, lattices and crystal systems in 3-D, symmetry, crystallographic point groups and space groups, Bragg’s law and the intensities of Bragg reflections, Vacancies, impurities, dislocations, interfacial defects, bulk or volume defects, atomic vibrations, Microstructure and microscopy, pressure vs. temperature phase diagrams, temperature vs. composition phase diagrams, equilibrium, thermodynamic functions, variation of Gibbs energy with temperature and composition, general features of equilibrium phase diagrams, solidification, diffusion mechanisms, nucleation of a new phase, phase diagrams of Fe-C system and other important alloys, materials fabrication, Normal stress and normal strain, shear stress and shear strain, elastic deformation, plastic deformation, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, elastic strain energy, thermal expansion, estimate of the yield stress, dislocations and motion of dislocations, slip systems, dislocations and strengthening mechanisms, fracture mechanics, ductile fracture, brittle fracture, Griffith criterion, ductile fracture, toughness of engineering materials, the ductile-brittle transition temperature, cyclic stresses and fatigue, creep, Polymer basics, polymer identification, polymer molecules, additional polymerization, step growth polymerization, measurement of molecular weight, thermosetting polymers and gels, rubbers and rubber elasticity, configuration and conformation of polymers, the glassy state and glass transition, determination of Tg, effect of temperature and time, mechanical properties of polymers, case studies in polymer selection and processing, Introduction to biomaterials, materials selection, biopolymers, structural polysaccharides, hard materials, biomedical materials.
Recommended Books:
- W. D. Callister and D. G. Rethwisch “Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach”,Wiley, 4th ed. 2012.
- J. F. Shackelford, “Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers”, Prentice Hall, 7th ed. 2008.
- W. D. Callister, “Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction”, Wiley, 7th ed. 2006.
PH-205 CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Conservative Forces, Conservation of Energy, Motion near Equilibrium; the Harmonic Oscillator, Complex Representation, The Law of Conservation of Energy, The Damped Oscillator, Oscillator under Simple Periodic Force, General Periodic Force, Impulsive Forces, the Green’s Function Method, Collision Problems, Energy, Projectiles, Moments, Angular Momentum, Central Forces; Conservation of Angular Momentum, Polar Co-ordinates, The Calculus of Variations, Hamilton’s Principle; Lagrange’s Equations, The Isotropic Harmonic Oscillator, The Conservation Laws, The Inverse Square Law, Orbits, Scattering Cross-sections, Mean Free Path, Rutherford Scattering, Angular Velocity, Rate of Change of a Vector, Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field, Acceleration; Apparent Gravity, Coriolis Force, Larmor Effect, Angular Momentum and the Larmor Effect, Gravitational and Electrostatic Potentials, The Dipole and Quadrupole, Spherical Charge Distributions, Expansion of Potential at Large Distances, The Shape of the Earth, The Tides, The Field Equations, Centre-of-mass and Relative Co-ordinates, The Centre-of-mass Frame, Elastic Collisions, CM and Lab Cross-sections, Momentum, Centre-of-mass Motion, Angular Momentum; Central Internal Forces, The Earth–Moon System, Energy, Lagrange’s Equations, Basic Principles, Rotation about an Axis, Perpendicular Components of Angular Momentum, Principal Axes of Inertia, Calculation of Moments of Inertia, Effect of a Small Force on the Axis, Instantaneous Angular Velocity, Rotation about a Principal Axis, Euler’s Angles, Generalized Co-ordinates, Holonomic Systems, Lagrange’s Equations, Precession of a Symmetric Top, Pendulum Constrained to Rotate about an Axis, Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field, The Stretched String, Small Oscillations and Normal Modes, Orthogonal Co-ordinates, Equations of Motion for Small Oscillations, Normal Modes, Coupled Oscillators, Oscillations of Particles on a String, Normal Modes of a Stretched String, Hamilton’s Equations, Conservation of Energy, Ignorable Co-ordinates, General Motion of the Symmetric Top, Liouville’s Theorem, Symmetries and Conservation Laws, Galilean Transformations.
Recommended Books:
- T. Kibble and F. Berkshire, “Classical Mechanics”, World Scientific, 5th ed. 2004.
- S.T. Thornton, J.B. Marion, “Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems”, Brooks Cole; 5thed. 2003.
- T. L. Chow, “Classical Mechanics”, John Wiley, 1995.
PH-301 QUANTUM MECHANICS-I
Electromagnetic waves and photon, material particles and matter waves, quantum description of a particle, wave packets, particle in a time-independent scalar potential, order of magnitude of the wavelength associated with material particles, constraints imposed by uncertainty relations, one-dimensional Gaussian wave packet, Spreading of the wave packet, stationary states of a particle in one-dimensional square potential, behavior of a wave packet at a potential step, One-particle wave function space, state space, Dirac notation, representations in the state space, observable, representations, review of some useful properties of linear operators, unitary operators, study of the {├|├ r⟩┤} and {├|├ p⟩┤} representations, some general properties of two observable, Q and P, whose commutator is equal to iħ, the two-dimensional infinite well, Statement of the postulates and their physical interpretation, the physical implications of the Schrodinger equation, the superposition principle, particle in an infinite potential well, study of the probability current in some special case, root-mean-square deviations of two conjugate observables, the density and evolution operators, Schrodinger and Heisenberg pictures, Gguge invariance, bound states of a particle in a potential well of arbitrary shape, unbound states of a particle in the presence of a potential well or barrier of arbitrary shape, quantum properties of a particle in a one-dimensional periodic structure, Spin ½ particles, quantization of the angular momentum, illustration of the postulates in the case of a spin ½, general study of two level systems, Pauli matrices, diagonalization of a 2×2 hermitian matrix, System of two spin ½ particles, Spin ½ density matrix, Spin ½ particle in a static magnetic field and a rotating field, Magnetic resonance, Importance of the harmonic oscillator in physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, mean value and root-mean-square deviations of X and P in state ǀ ├ φ_n ⟩, Some examples of harmonic oscillators, study of the stationary states in the {├|├ r⟩┤} representation, Hermite polynomials, solving the Eigenvalues of the harmonic oscillators by the polynomial method, study of the stationary states in the {├|├ p⟩┤} representation, isotropic three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, charged harmonic oscillator placed in a uniform electric field, coherent states, Normal vibrational modes of coupled harmonic oscillators, vibrational modes of an infinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators, phonons, one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamics equilibrium at a temperature T, General Properties of Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics, Particle in a Central Potential.
Recommended Books:
1. N. Zettili, "Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications", John Wiley, 2nd ed. 2009.
2. D.J. Griffiths, "Introduction to Quantum Mechanics", Addison-Wesley, 2nd ed. 2004.
3. R. Liboff, "Introductory Quantum Mechanics", Addison-Wesley, 4 ed. 2002.
PH-302 LASER ENGINEERING
Brief history of laser development, principle components of laser, types of lasers, properties of laser beam, an overview of laser technology, energy states in atom, transition between energy states (absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission), principles of laser, power and energy, special features of laser beam (directionality, diffraction, intensity, monochromaticity, coherency, line-width), Thermal equilibrium, Einstein coefficients, condition for large stimulated emissions, condition for light amplification, population inversion, energy state, metastable state, three level laser, four level laser, line broadening, laser rate equations (two, three, and four level systems), generic laser, gain medium, pumping source, resonant cavity, Amplification and gain, optical resonator, laser action, gain of active medium (mathematical treatment), threshold condition, gain calculation, conditions for steady state oscillation, cavity resonance frequencies, laser modes (longitudinal and transverse), single mode operation, Resonator (cavity) configuration, fabry-perot resonator or plane parallel cavity, confocal resonator, hemispherical cavity or combination of plane and spherical resonator, long radius cavity, stability criterion, examples (stable and unstable resonator), What is pumping, pumping methods, optical pumping, electric pumping (direct discharge), electric pumping for semiconductor laser, chemical pumping, flash lamps, optical pumping configuration, optical pumping assembly, active mediums (atoms, molecules, liquids, dielectric solids, semiconductor material), Introduction to control of laser output beam, frequency selection, generation of high power pulses, Q-factor, Q-switching and giant pulses, methods of Q-switching, active Q-switching (mechanical Q-switching, acousto-optic Q-switching, electro-optic Q-switching), passive Q-switching (saturable absorber, cavity dumping), introduction to mode-locking, mode-locking techniques (active mode-locking, passive mode-locking), Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system, Industrial applications, material processing (laser drilling, laser cutting, laser welding), LIDAR (laser imaging detection and ranging),photolithography, medical applications (LASIK surgery, laser seizer), isotope separation using laser, Nuclear fusion, brief overview of major laser facility (NIF facility), laser holography, military applications.
Recommended Books:
1. K. Thyagarajan, “Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications”, Springer, 2nd ed. 2010.
2. O. Svelto, “Principles of Lasers”, Springer, 5th ed. 2009.
3. K. R. Nambiar, “LASERS: Principles, Types and Applications”, New Age, 2009.
4. W. Koecher, “Solid-State Laser Engineering”, Springer, 2009.
5. W.. T. Silfvast, “Laser Fundamentals”, Cambridge, 2nd ed. 2008.
6. R. F. Walter, “Gas Lasers (Optical Science and Engineering)”, CRC Press, 2006.
PH-303 MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS-I
Bessel Functions, Neumann Functions, Hankel Functions, Spherical Bessel Functions, Legendre Functions, Associated Legendre Functions, Spherical Harmonics, Hermite Polynomials. Introduction to important PDEs in Physics (wave equation, diffusion equation, Poisson’s equation, Schrodinger’s equation), general form of solution, general and particular solutions (first order, inhomogeneous, second order), characteristics and existence of solutions, uniqueness of solutions, separation of variables in Cartesian coordinates, superposition of separated solutions, separation of variables in curvilinear coordinates, special functions, integral transform methods, Green’s functions, Review (polar form of complex numbers and de Moivre’s theorem, complex logarithms and powers), functions of a complex variable, Cauchy-Riemann conditions, power series in a complex variable and analytic continuation with examples, multi-valued functions and branch cuts, singularities and zeroes of complex functions, complex integration, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Laurent series and residues, residue integration theorem, definite integrals using contour integration.
Recommended Books:
- G. Arfken, H. J. Weber, and F. E. Harris, “Mathematical Methods for Physicists”, Academic Press, 7th ed. 2012.
- K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, S. J. Bence, “Mathematical Methods for Physicists”, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- E. Kreyszig, “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”, John Wiley, 8th ed. 1999.
PH-304 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY-I
Review of Vector Calculus, The Dirac Delta Function: Review of vector calculus using example of Dirac Delta function, Electrostatics, Laplace’s equation: introduction, Laplace’s equation in one, two and three dimensions, boundary conditions and uniqueness theorems, conductors and second uniqueness theorems, The classic image problem, induced surface charge, force and energy, other image problems, Approximate potential at large, the monopole and dipole terms, origin of coordinates in multipole, expansions, the electric field of a dipole, dielectrics, induced dipoles, alignment of polar molecules, polarization. The field of a polarized object bound charges, physical interpretation of bound charges, and the field inside a dielectric. The electric displacement, Gauss’s law in the presence of dielectrics, a deceptive parallel, boundary conditions. Linear Dielectrics, susceptibility, permittivity, dielectric constant, boundary value problems with linear dielectrics, energy in dielectric systems, forces on dielectrics, The Lorentz Force law, magnetic fields, magnetic forces, currents. The Biot-Savart Law, steady currents, the magnetic field of a steady current. The divergence and curl of B, straight-line currents, the divergence and curl of B, applications of Ampere’s law, comparison of magnetostatics and electrostatics, the vector potential, summary, magnetic boundary conditions, multipole expansion of the vector potential, Magnetization, diamagnets, paramagnets, ferromagnets, torques and forces on magnetic dipoles, effect of a magnetic field on atomic orbits, magnetization, field of a magnetized object, bound currents, physical interpretation of bound currents, and the magnetic field inside matter. The auxiliary field H, Ampere’s law in magnetized materials, a deceptive parallel, boundary conditions. Linear and nonlinear media, magnetic susceptibility and permeability, ferromagnetism.
Recommended Books:
- Hearld J and W. Muller-Kristen, “Electrodynamics”, World Scientific Publishing, 2nd ed. 2011.
- M. N. O. Sadiku, ”Elements of Electromagnetics”, . Oxford University Press, 5th ed.2009.
- F. Melia, “Electrodynamics”, University of Chicago Press, 2001.
- D. J. Griffiths, “Introduction to Electrodynamics”, Prentice Hall, 3rd ed. 1999.
PH-305 VACUMM SCIENCE
Basic concepts, Importance of vacuum, Range of vacuum, Gas mixture and partial pressure, Vapors and vapor pressure, Kinetic Molecular Theory of a gas, The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution of Molecular Speed, Molecular Collisions and Mean Free Path, Heat Conduction in Gases, Thermal Transpiration, Viscosity in Gases, The Scattering of Molecules by a Surface, Adsorption and Desorption, Outgassing, Molecular Drag, Sputtering, Throughput and Pumping Speed, Conductance, Continuum Flow, Molecular Flow, Pumping Process, Pump-Down Time and Ultimate Pressure, Rotary Oil Pumps, Sorption Pumps Diffusion Pumps, (High Vacuum). Production of Ultrahigh Vacuum, Guttering Pumps, Ion Pumps, Cryogenic Pumps, Turbo Molecular Pumps, Manometers, Perini gauges, The McLoad gauges, Mass Spectrometer for Partial Measurement of Pressure, Surface to Volume ratio, Pump Choice, Pumping System Design, Vacuum Valves, Vacuum Flanges, Liquid Nitrogen Trap, Mechanical Feed throughs & Electrical Feed throughs, Basic Consideration in leak detection, Leak Detection Equipment, Special Techniques And Problems
Recommended Books:
- A. Chambers, Modern Vacuum Physics, Chapman& Hall, 2004.
- Modern Vacuum Practice, McGraw Hill, 1989.
- J. Yarwood, High Vacuum Techniques, Chapman & Hall, 1967.
PH-306 STATISTICAL MECHANICS
Macroscopic vs. microscopic, "heat" and "work", energy, entropy, equilibrium, laws of thermodynamics, Equations of state, thermodynamic potentials, temperature, pressure, chemical potential, thermodynamic processes (engines, refrigerators), Maxwell relations, phase equilibria, Phase Space, Trajectories in Phase Space, Conserved Quantities and Accessible Phase Space, Macroscopic Measurements and Time Averages, Ensembles and Averages over Phase Space, Liouville's Theorem, The Ergodic Hypothesis, Specification of the state of a system, concept of ensembles, elementary probability calculations, distribution functions, statistical interpretation of entropy (Boltzmann theorem), Microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble and examples (e.g., paramagnet), calculation of mean values, calculation of partition function and its relation with thermodynamic quantities, the grand canonical ensemble and examples (e.g. adsorption), calculation of partition function and thermodynamic quantities, Monoatomic ideal gas in classical and quantum limit, Gibb’s paradox and quantum mechanical enumeration of states, equipartition theorem and examples (ideal gas, harmonic oscillator), specific heat of solids, quantum mechanical calculation of paramagnetism, Indistinguishability and symmetry requirements, Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Bose-Einstein and photon statistics, Fermi-Dirac statistics (distribution functions, partition functions). Examples: polyatomic ideal gas (MB), black body radiation (photon statistics), conduction electrons in metals (FD), Bose condensation (BE), Lattice vibrations in solids, van der Waals gas, mean field calculation, ferromagnets in mean field approximation.
Recommended Books:
- F.Reif, “Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics”, Waveland PrInc, 2008.
- W. Brewer, F. Schwabl, “Statistical Mechanics”, Springer, 2nd ed. 2006.
- T. L. Hill, “Statistical Mechanics”, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004.
- K. Huang, “Statistical Mechanics”, John Wiley, 2nd ed. 1987.
- A.J. Pointon, “Introduction to Statistical Physics”, Longman 1967.
PH-307 MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS-II
Fourier Series and Integral Transforms, Fourier Series of Various Physical Functions, Uses and Applications of Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms, Convolution Theorems, Laplace transforms and applications, Vector calculus (differentiation, integration, space curves, multi-variable vectors, surfaces, scalar and vector fields, gradient, divergence and curl, cylindrical and spherical coordinates, general curvilinear coordinates), change of basis, Cartesian tensor as a geometrical object, order/rank of a tensor, tensor algebra, quotient law, pseudo tensors, Kronecker delta and Levi-cevita, dual tensors, physical applications, integral theorems for tensors, non-Cartesian tensors, general coordinate transformations and tensors, Transformations, groups – definitions and examples, subgroups and Cayley’s theorem, cosets and Lagrange’s theorem, conjugate classes, invariant subgroups, factor groups, homomorphism, direct products, mappings, linear operators, matrix representations, similarity transformation and equivalent matrix representations, group representations, equivalent representations and characters, construction of representations and addition of representations, invariance of functions and operators, unitary spaces and Hermitian matrices, operators: adjoint, self-adjoint, unitary, Hilbert space, reducibility of representations, Schur’s lemmas, orthogonality relations, group algebra, expansion of functions in basis of irreducible representations, Kronecker product, symmetrized and anti-symmetrized representations, adjoint and complex-conjugate representations, real representations.
Recommended Books:
- G. Arfken, H. J. Weber, and F. E. Harris, “Mathematical Methods for Physicists”, Academic Press, 7th ed. 2012.
- E. Kreyszig, “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”, John Wiley, 8th ed. 1999.
- M. Hamermesh, “Group Theory and its Applications to Physical Problems”, Dover Publications 1989.
PH- 308 QUANTUM MECHANICS-II
Total angular momentum in classical mechanics, total angular momentum in quantum mechanics, addition of two spin ½ angular momenta, addition of two arbitrary angular momenta, Clebsch-Gordon coefficients, addition of spherical harmonics, vector operators, Wigner-Eckart theorem, electric Multipole moments, Evolution of two angular momenta J1 and J2 coupled by an interaction aJ1 . J2., Description of the method, perturbation of a non-degenerate level, perturbation of a degenerate level, one-dimensional harmonic oscillator subjected to a perturbing potential, interaction between the magnetic dipoles of two spin ½ particles, van der Waals forces, volume effect and The influence of the spatial extension of the nucleus on the atomic levels, variational method, energy bands of electrons in solids, a simple example of the chemical bond: The H_2^+ ion, fine and hyperfine structure of atomic levels in hydrogen, Calculation of the mean values of the spin-orbit coupling in the 1s, 2s and 2p levels, hyperfine structure And the Zeeman effect for muonium and positronium, Stark effect, approximate solution of the Schrodinger equation, An important special case: Sinusoidal or constant perturbation, Interaction of an atom with electromagnetic waves, linear and non-linear response of a two-level system subjected to a sinusoidal perturbation, oscillations of a system between two discrete states under the effect of a resonant perturbation, Rabi flopping, decay of discrete state resonantly coupled to a continuum of final states, Fermi's golden rule, Identical particles, Permutation operators, The symmetrization postulate, difference between bosons and fermions, Pauli’s exclusion principle, many-electrons atom and their electronic configurations, energy levels of the helium atom, configurations, terms, multiplets, spin isomers of hydrogen (ortho and parahydrogen), Importance of collision phenomena, Stationary scattering states, scattering cross section, scattering by a central potential, method of partial waves, phenomenological description of collisions with absorption.
Recommended Books:
1. N. Zettili, "Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications", John Wiley, 2nd ed. 2009.
2. D.J. Griffiths, "Introduction to Quantum Mechanics", Addison-Wesley, 2nd ed. 2004.
3. R. Liboff, "Introductory Quantum Mechanics", Addison-Wesley, 4th ed. 2002.
PH-309 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY-II
Electromotive force, Ohm’s law, motional emf, electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s law, the induced electric field, inductance, energy in magnetic fields, Maxwell’s equations: electrodynamics before Maxwell, how Maxwell fixed Ampere’s law, Maxwell’s equations, magnetic charges, Maxwell’s equations in matter, boundary conditions, Charge and energy: the continuity equation, Poynting’s theorem, momentum: Newton’s third law in electrodynamics, Maxwell’s stress tensor, conservation of momentum, angular momentum, Waves in one dimension: the wave equation, sinusoidal waves, boundary conditions, reflection and transmission, polarization, electromagnetic waves in vacuum, the wave equation for E and B, monochromatic plane waves, energy and momentum in electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves in matter: propagation in linear media, reflection and transmission at normal incidence, reflection and transmission at oblique incidence, absorption and dispersion, electromagnetic waves in conductors, reflection at a conducting surface, the frequency dependence of permittivity, guided waves: wave guides, the waves in a rectangular wave guide, the coaxial transmission line, Potentials and Fields, Radiation, Dipole Radiation, electric dipole radiation, magnetic dipole radiation, radiation from an arbitrary source, point charges, power radiated by a point charge, radiation reaction, the physical basis of the radiation reaction, The special theory of relativity, Einstein’s postulates, the geometry of relativity, the Lorentz transformations, the structure of space-time, relativistic mechanics, proper time and proper velocity, relativistic energy and momentum, relativistic kinematics, relativistic dynamics, relativistic electrodynamics, magnetism as a relativistic phenomenon, how the field transform, the field tensor, electrodynamics in tensor notation, relativistic potentials.
Recommended Books:
- Hearld J and W. Muller-Kristen, “Electrodynamics”, World Scientific Publishing, 2nd ed. 2011.
- M. N. O. Sadiku, “Elements of Electromagnetics”, Oxford University Press, 5th ed. ed. 2009.
- F. Melia, “Electrodynamics”, University of Chicago Press, 1st ed. 2001.
- D. J. Griffiths, “Introduction to Electrodynamics”, ed. Prentice Hall, 3rd ed. 1999.
PH- 310 SOLID STATE PHYSICS- I
Lattices and basis, Symmetry operations, Fundamental Types of Lattice, Position and Orientation of Planes in Crystals, Simple crystal structures, Diffraction of X-rays, Neutrons and electrons from crystals; Bragg’s law; Reciprocal lattice, Ewald construction and Brillouin zone, Fourier Analysis of the Basis, Quantization of Lattice Vibrations, Phonon momentum, inelastic scattering by phonons, Lattice Vibrations for Mono-atomic and diatomic basis, Optical Properties in the Infrared Region, Lattice heat Capacity, Classical model, Einstein Model, Enumeration of normal modes, Density of state in one, two or three dimensions, Debye model of heat capacity, Comparison with experimental results, thermal conductivity and resistivity, Umklapp processes, Classical free electron theory of metals, energy levels and density of orbital’s in one dimension, effect of temperature on the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, properties of the free electron gas, electrical conductivity and Ohm’s Law, thermal and electrical conductivities of metals and their ratio, motion of free electrons in magnetic fields, cyclotron frequency, static magneto conductivity and Hall Effect along with applications.
Recommended Books:
- C. Kittle, “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, John Wiley, 8th ed. 2005.
- M. A. Omar, “Elementary and Solid State Physics”, Pearson Education, 2000.
- M. A. Wahab, “Solid State Physics”, Narosa Publishing House, 1999.
- S. R. Elliott, “The Physics and Chemistry of Solids”, John Wiley, 1998
- H. M. Rosenberg, “The Solid State”, Oxford Science Publication, 3rd ed. 1988.
PH-313 Special Theory of Relativity:
Galilean Relativity, Concept of ether, Michelson-Morely Experiment, Einstein’s Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity, Lorentz Transformations, Minkowskian geometry of space-time, Four-dimensional space-time, Light-cone, relativity of simultaneity, Time dilation, Length contraction, Mass variation, Twin paradox, Velocity transformation and velocity addition, Relativistic Momentum, Relativistic Energy, Relativistic Mechanics, Conservation of energy and momentum.
General Theory of Relativity: Principles of General Theory of Relativity, Equation of geodesics, Einstein’s field Equation.
Cosmology: Newtonian Cosmology, Hubble’s Law, Expansion of the Universe, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, Big Bang model of Universe.
Introduction of Space Science: Introduction, formation and types of Galaxies, Milky Way Galaxy, Types and properties of stars, Nebulae and Supernova, Solar system models, Sun, Planets, Moon, Comet and Asteroids, planetary orbits, Atmosphere of planets and Magnetosphere.
Recommended Books:
- Dynamics and Relativity, by W. D. McComb, Oxford University Press, (Latest Edition)
- Introduction to Cosmology, J. V. Narlikar, Cambridge University Press, (Latest Edition)
- Introducing Einstein`s Relativity, R. D`Inverno, Oxford University Press, (Latest Edition)
PH-401 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS
A brief introduction of the computer languages like Basic, C. Pascal etc and known software packages of computation, Numerical Solutions of equations, Regression and interpolation, Numerical integration and differentiation. Error analysis and technique for elimination of systematic and random errors, Conceptual models, The mathematical models, Random numbers and random walk, Doing Physics with random numbers, Computer simulation, Relationship of modeling and simulation. Some systems of interest for physicists such as Motion of Falling objects, Kepler's problems, Oscillatory motion, Many particle systems, Dynamic systems, Wave phenomena, Field of static charges and current, Diffusion, Populations genetics etc.
Recommended Books:
- H. Gould, J. Tobochnik and W. Christian, “An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods”, Addison Wesley, 3rd ed. 2006.
- M. L. De Jong, ”Introduction to Computational Physics”, Addison Wesley, 1991.
- S. C. Chapra and R. P. Chanle, ”Numerical Methods for Engineers with Personal Computer Applications”, McGraw Hill,1990.
- S. T. Koonini, “Computational Physics”, The Benjamin-Cummings, 1985.
PH-402 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
Review of Bohr’s theory, Somerfield model, Frank Hertz experiment and approximation methods, Review of Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atom, Fermi Golden rule, Quantum numbers, Atoms in radiation field, Radiative transitions, Einstein coefficients, Selection rules, normal Zeeman effect, Stark effect, Hyperfine structure, Pauli exclusion principle, Periodic system of the elements, Stern Gerlach experiment, Spin orbit coupling, Central field approximation, Hartree Fock methods and self-consistent field, Thomas Fermi potential, LS coupling, jj coupling and other type of coupling, X-ray spectra, Many electron atoms in an electromagnetic field, Anomalous Zeeman effect, Paschen back effect, Stark effect. Ionic and covalent bonding, Diatomic molecules-rotational, vibrational, and electronic spectra, Born Oppenhimer approximation, Transition probabilities of diatomic molecules, electron spin and Hund’s cases, Polyatomic molecules (brief introduction), Raman effect, Hydrogen Molecular ion (LCAO approximation), Hydrogen molecule (Heitler London and molecular orbital theories).
Recommended Books:
- W. Demtroder, “Atoms, Molecules and Photons”, y, Springer, 2nd ed. 2010.
- B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, “Physics of Atoms and Molecules”, Pearson Education, 2nd ed. 2008.
- C. J. Foot, “Atomic Physics”, Oxford University Press, 2005.
- J. M. Hollas, “Basic Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy”, John Wiley, 2002.
PH- 403 SOLID STATE PHYSICS - II
Polarization, Depolarization, Local and Maxwell field, Lorentz field, Clausius-Mossotti relation, Dielectric Constant and Polarizability, Measurement of dielectric constant, ferroelectricity and ferroelectric crystals, Phase Transitions, First and 2nd order phase transitions, General properties of semiconductors, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, their band structure, carrier statistics in thermal equilibrium, band level treatment of conduction in semiconductors and junction diodes, diffusion and drift currents, collisions and recombination times, Interaction of light with solids, Optical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals, Kramers-Kronnig Relation, Excitons, Raman Effect in crystals, optical spectroscopy of solids, Magnetic dipole moment and susceptibility, different kinds of magnetic materials, Langevin diamagnetic equation, Paramagnetic equation and Curie law, Classical and quantum approaches to paramagnetic materials. Ferro-magnetic and anti – ferromagnetic order, Curie point and exchange integral, Effect of temperature on different kinds of magnetic materials and applications, Introduction to superconductivity, Zero-Resistance and Meissner Effect , Type I and Type II superconductors, Thermodynamic fields,Tow fluid model, London equations , BCS and Ginzburg – Landau Theory, Vortex Behaviour, Critical Current Density, Josephson effect and applications.
Recommended Books:
- M. Fox, “Optical Properties of Solids”, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed. 2010.
- N. A. Spaldin, “Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Device Applications”, Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed. 2010.
- C. Kittle, “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, John Wiley, 8th ed. 2005.
- G. Burns, “High Temperature Superconductivity - An Introduction”, Academic Press, 1992.
PH- 404 NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Nuclear size, mass, binding energy, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment, parity and statistics, Yukawa's theory of nuclear forces. Nucleon scattering, charge independence and spin dependence of nuclear force, isotopic spin, Liquid drop model, Fermi gas model, Shell model, Collective model, Theory of Alpha decay and explanation of observed phenomena, measurement of Beta ray energies, the magnetic lens spectrometer, Fermi theory of Beta decay, Neutrino hypothesis, theory of Gamma decay, multipolarity of Gamma rays, Nuclear isomerism, Van de Graph generator, linear accelerator, cyclotron, magnetron, Geiger-Muller counter, bubble chamber, cloud chamber, scintillator, Conservation laws of nuclear reactions, Q-value and threshold energy of nuclear reaction, energy level and level width, cross sections for nuclear reactions, compound nucleolus theory of nuclear reaction and its limitations, direct reaction, resonance reactions, Breit-Wigner one level formula including the effect of angular momentum.
Recommended Books:
- B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholtz, F. Zetsche, “Particle and Nuclei”, 1999.
- Green, “Nuclear Physics”, McGraw Hill, 1995.
- K. S. Krane, “Introducing Nuclear Physics”, John Wiley, 3rd ed. 1988.
- Kaplan, “Nuclear Physics”, Addison-Wisely, 1980.
- E. Segre, “Nuclei and Particles”, Bejamin-Cummings, 2nd ed. 1977.
PH-405 INTRODUCTION TO NANO SCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES
Feynman talks on small structures, Nano scale dimension, Course goals and objectives, Wave particle duality, Energy quanta, Uncertainty principle, De Broglie relation, Quantum Dots, Moore's law, tunneling Interfaces, Surface chemistry and physics, Surface modification and characterization, Thin Films, Sputtering, Self-assembled films, Subatomic physics to chemical systems, types of chemical bonds, solid state physics / Material properties, Sol gel, Lithography (photo and electron beam), MBE, Self-assembly, FIB, Stamp technology, Nano junctions, Variation in electronic properties, free electron model, Bloch's theorem, Band structure, Single electron transistor, Resonant tunneling, Lewis structures, Approach to calculate Molecular orbitals, Donor Acceptor properties, Electron transfer between molecules, Charge transport in weakly interacting molecular solids, Single molecule electronics, Quantum dots, nano wires, nano photonics, magnetic nano structures, nano thermal devices, Nano fluidic devices, biomimetic materials, DNA micro-arrays, Protein and DNA Assembly, Digital cells, genetic circuits, DNA computing, Electron Microscopy (STM, AFM,SEM and TEM), Fluorescence methods, Synchrotron Radiation, XRD, Nanostructure innovation, Quantum Informatics, Energy solutions.
Recommended Books:
- C. Binns, “Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Wiley Survival Guides in Engineering and Science)”, Wiley, 2010.
- S. Lindsay, “Introduction to Nanoscience”, Oxford University Press, 2009.
PH-406 SURFACE SCIENCES
Introduction to Surface Science, Surface reactions, Heterogeneous catalysis, Semiconductor technology, Corrosion, Nanotechnology, Surface Structure and Reconstruction Classification of solids, Crystal structure, Unit cell, Bravais lattices, Electronic Structure of Surfaces: Band structure of metals, insulators and semiconductors, Fermi level, Screening, Work Function, Surface States, Electron Affinity, Ionization Potential, Surface Chirality, Thermodynamics of Surfaces, Equilibrium Crystal Shape, Quantum confinement of Electrons at Surfaces, Interference of Electron Waves, Quantum size effects, Quantum wells, Mechanical Quantum Wells, Quantum Wires, Chemist’s Approach, Bonds to Bands, Surface Dynamics, Nucleation and growth of nanostructures and films, Surface Magnetism and magnetic imaging, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Anti-Ferromagnetism, Magnetism in thin films, Kerr microscopy (MOKE), Spin Polarized Photoemission (SP-PEEM), Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)Surface Study Techniques, Surface Sensitivity and specificity, Explanation and comparison of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Explanation of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS), Introduction to Desorption Techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS), Electron Stimulated Desorption (ESD), Electron Stimulated Desorption Ion Angular Distribution (ESDIAD), Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD), Electron Spectroscopy, Theory: Mean free path, Koopman’s Theorem, Spin orbit coupling effects, chemical shifts, binding energy, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-Ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy, Electron Analyzer, Electron optics, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), History, Theory, Electronics and applications, Silicon Surfaces, Geometric and Electronic Structure, Molecular Adsorption on Semiconductor Surfaces, Adsorption Properties of CO on Metal Single-Crystal Surfaces, Molecular or dissociative adsorption, Chemical bonding and Orientation, Adsorption Site as a function of coverage, Over layer long-range order, Ammonia Synthesis, Oxide Surfaces Photovoltaic and Organic Electronics, Different types of semiconductors (organic, inorganic, conjugated polymers), Prototypes (OLEDs etc), intra-molecular bonding, Van der Waals, electronic properties, polarization effects, Field effect Transistors, basics of excitonic solar cells.
Recommended Books:
- I. Harald, Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces , Springer Verlag, 2006.
- R. I. Masel, “Principles of Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces”, Wiley-Interscience, 1996.
- J. B. Hudson, “Surface Science, an Introduction”, Wiley-Interscience, 1998.
- M. Prutton, “Introduction to Surface Physics”, Oxford University Press, 1994.
- D. Briggs and M. P. Seah, “Practical Surface Analysis”, Vol-I, John Wiley, 2nd ed. 1990.
PH-410 Space Physics
History of Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Ancient Auroral Sightings
Early measurements of geomagnetic Field
Discovery of Ionosphere
Discovery of Magnetosphere Solar Wind
The Sun
Characteristics: Star type, Physical Parameters, Rotation & Rotation Period
Structure: Granulation, Filaments, Inner Layers, Outer Layers
Atmosphere: Chemical Composition, Limb darkening
Magnetism: Flux Tubes, Sunspots, The Solar Cycle
Chromosphere, Corona & Solar Wind: Mottles Spicules, Temperature Change
Transition Region, Types of Corona
Activities: Solar Flares, Radio Bursts; Energetic Particles and γ-Rays, Eruptive Filaments, CMEs
Heliosphere: Formation, Structure, Heliospheric Bubbles
Magnetosphere& Geomagnetism
Introduction
Planetary Magnetic Field: Sources, Geodynamo, Planets with Field, Planet without Field,
Size and Shape of the Magnetosphere: Size of Cavity, Shape of Cavity
Structure: Magnetopause, Magnetosheath, Magnetotail, Radiation Belts, Cusps, Ring Current.
Magnetospheric Dynamics: Field Sources, Field Vector, Solar Wind Control of Geomagnetic Activity, Magnetospheric Control of Geomagnetic Activity
Magnetic Activity: Solar-Quit Variations, Magnetic Substorms, Magnetic Storms, SFEs, Indices.
Ionosphere
Introduction:
Formation: Production, Ion Loss
Structure: Layers, Chapman`s Layers, The F Region, Sporadic E
Ionopsheric Currents: Hall Current, Pederson Current
Ionopsheric Variations & Irregularities: Diurnal, Seasonal,, Solar Cycle, Geographical/Geomagnetical, Anomalies, TIDs, Ionopsheric Drift, Spread F
Ionosphere – Magnetosphere Coupling: Plasmasphere, Transportation Process, Auroral Oval, Chemistry of Aurora, Types of Aurora, Aurora on other Planets, Auroral Substorm, Polar Cap Absorption (PCA)
Plasma & its Characteristics
Plasma frequency & Gyrofrequency
Debye length & Debye Shielding
Cold and Hot Plasma
Space Plasmas
Ionopsheric Plasma
Magnetosphere & Plasma sphere
Solar Wind & Interplanetary magnetic Field (IMF)
Recommended Books:
- Our sun, the source of life Dr Hamid Saleem (Latest Edition)
- Basic plasma physics imperial college press (Latest Edition)
- Ionosperic radio k. Davies (Latest Edition)
- Introduction to Space physics Cambridge (Latest Edition)
PH-411 SPACE PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS
Space Weather
Atmosphere: A brief overview, Earth: The Habitable Planet, Weather & Climate, Atmospheric Chemistry, Weather Systems What is Space Weather? : Key Concepts, Introduction, Brief History
Importance Space Environment: Spacecraft Orbits, Vacuum, Neutral, Plasma, Radiation, Particles, Interactions. Effect of Space Weather: Communication, Navigation, Space Technologies
Magnetic Reconnection
X-region Seperatix Region
Solar Wind Interaction with Magnetized Planets
Planets with Magnetic Field
Solar Wind Interaction with Unmagnitized Bodies
Moon like bodies Bodies with Atmosphere
Plasma Astrophysics
Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) MHD Shocks & Waves Interstellar Medium (ISM)
Accretion Disks & Jets
Instrumentation
Optical & other Astronomy Sun Monitoring Magnetosphere and Geomagnetic field Measurements
Ionopsheric Monitoring
Satellite Applications
Weather forecasting Environmental Monitoring Navigation and Surveillance Astronomical Applications Resource Surveying Telecommunication Defense Application
Recommended Books:
- Kennedy Davis, “Electronic Communication Systems” McGraw Hill (2000)
- May-Britt Kallendrode, “ Space Physics An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetosphere” Springer Verlag, (2004)
- J.N Xanthakis, “ Solar Physics”, London (Latest Edition)
- M. G. Kivelson, “Introduction to Space Physics” Cambridge University Press (Latest Edition).
PH-313 COSMOLOGY AND THEORY OF RELATIVITY
Special Theory of Relativity: Galilean Relativity, Concept of ether, Michelson-Morely Experiment, Einstein’s Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity, Lorentz Transformations, Minkowskian geometry of space-time, Four-dimensional space-time, Light-cone, relativity of simultaneity, Time dilation, Length contraction, Mass variation, Twin paradox, Velocity transformation and velocity addition, Relativistic Momentum, Relativistic Energy, Relativistic Mechanics, Conservation of energy and momentum.
Elements of Tensor: Manifolds and coordinates, Curves and surfaces, Tensor field, Riemann Curvature tensor, Metric tensor, Einstein’s tensor.
General Theory of Relativity: Principles of General Theory of Relativity, Equation of geodesics, Einstein’s field Equation.
Cosmology: Newtonian Cosmology, Hubble’s Law, Expansion of the Universe, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, Big Bang model of Universe.
Introduction of Space Science: Introduction, formation and types of Galaxies, Milky Way Galaxy, Types and properties of stars, Nebulae and Supernova, Solar system models, Sun, Planets, Moon, Comet and Asteroids, planetary orbits, Atmosphere of planets and Magnetosphere.
Reference Books
- Dynamics and Relativity, W. D. McComb, Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Introduction to Cosmology, J. V. Narlikar, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
- Introduction Einstein’s Relativity, R. D’Inverno, Oxford University Press, 1992.
PH-407 APPLIED PHYSICS PROJECT
The project will include, the study and characterization of indigenous materials for the developments of high efficiency photovoltaic cell, Laser Induced Spectroscopy, Solar Energy and Wind Energy.
INTERDSCIPLINARY COURSES
HS-104 FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH
Listening: Types of Listening, Problems in listening and coping strategies, Listening skills, sub skills, Practice in Listening, Note taking: Techniques for taking notes from lectures, from books, Note taking in different forms paragraphs, points, figures, processes, tables, graphs etc. Vocabulary development: Enhancing current vocabulary to reflect a better usage of words in spoken and written language, Tips/ strategies in vocabulary enhancement, Practice in vocabulary development. Reading: Reading skills, sub skills, Reading comprehension levels, Reading strategies, Reading practice through variety of reading texts and comprehension exercises, Beyond reading[ outline, précis, speech and presentation].Writing: Process of Writing, Informal Writing strategies, Writing correctly: sentence structure and punctuation, error correction, Paragraphs: Structure, types, topic and the topic sentence, and unity, adequate development and coherence in paragraphs, Essays: Types, Five paragraphs long essays, and structure ( thesis statement and the paragraphs),Short Reports: Structure, format, and types ( informational and analytical),Letters: elements, style, formatting (digital letter writing), organization and structure of the letter, and types (Routine requests and intimation, invitation, thank you and condolence letters etc.)
Reference Books
- Cambridge vocabulary for IELTS by Pauline Cullen, Cambridge University Press. 2008
- English Vocabulary in Use (upper intermediate) by Michael Mcarthy & Felicity O’Dell Cambridge University Press. 2008
- Academic Listening Encounters: Human Behaviour (Cambridge University Press), 2004
- Study Listening (2nd Ed) by Lynch( Cambridge University Press). 2007
- Themes for Listening and Speaking Teacher’s 2nd edition. By Carole Robinson and Helen parker (Oxford university Press). 1986
- Making Connections: A strategic Approach to Academic Reading (2nd Ed). By Kenneth J Pakenham (Cambridge University Press).2004
- Study Reading (2nd Ed) by Glendining and Holmstrom.(Cambridge University Press).2007
- Writing and the Writer by Frank Smith, Heinemann Educational Books.1994
- Connections – A Guide to basics of writing, by Peter Dow Adams, Little Brown and Company,1987
- College Writing skills ( 5th Ed) by John Langan, Irwin McGraw Hill. 1984
- The Elements of International Style: A Guide to writing correspondence, reports, Technical Documents, and internet pages for a global Audience by Edmond H Weiss. Prentice Hall: India 2005
HS 201 ORAL COMMUNICATION
Foundations for Oral Communication: Introduction to communication, Model of Communication Competence, Perception, Language and Nonverbal communication, listening
Interpersonal Communication: Introducing IPC and its assumptions, Challenges, principles and ethics of IPC, Interpersonal relationships and skills, Conversation: process, management and problems, Interpersonal conflict, Pair discussion/ debate
Small Group Communication: Need and significance of small group communication. Challenges and coping strategies in small group competence, Decision making, leadership and managing relationships in small groups. Group discussion practice
Public Speaking & Technical Presentations: Introduction to public speaking, Realizing Speaking types[speaking to inform, explain or persuade], Understanding speech preparation (process and model, purpose and thesis, gathering support materials, organizing and outlining, and developing visual aids), Delivering speech effectively (eloquence, voice and articulation, non verbal cues, and avoiding pitfalls), Practice in Speech and Technical Presentations
Interviewing: Types of interviews and process, Considerations & skills during interviews, Preparing for effective Interviewing, Simulating Employment Interviewing.
Reference Books:
1.Human Communication ( 8th edition) by Joseph A. Devito , Longman,2000
2.Communicating in Business and Professional Settings ( 4th ed ) by Michael s. Hanna, McGraw Hill, 1997
3.The Perfect Presentation by Andrew Leigh and Michael Maynard, Random House. 2003
4.Human Communication: Motivation , knowledge and skills.(2nd edition) By Sherwyn P. Morreale , Brian H. Spitzberg, & J Kevin Barge , Wadsworth, Thomson Learning USA.2006
5.Process & product Approach to Business Communication (7th edition) by Mary Allen Guffy. Thomson Publishers.2010
6.Business Communication Today (8th Edition) by Courtland L. Bovee & John V. Thill. Prentice Hall International Inc. 2008
HS- 301 BUSINESS& ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Business Communication Foundations: Definition of business, organization and communication, Goals, patterns, principles, channels, tools, levels, Qualities(7 C’s) and process of communication, Forms and functions of organizational communication, Communication barriers, Feedback and its types, Listening & Understanding Nonverbal Communication, International and cross cultural communication,
Communication Technologies and Techniques: Tools for digital communication, Etiquettes and ethics of using communication technologies
Communicating in Teams: Improving your performance in Teams (team communication, group dynamics, Etiquette in team settings), Making your meetings more productive (preparing for meetings, leading and participating in meetings, Meeting Notice, Agenda and minutes, Meeting simulation
Business Writing: Planning Audience Centered Business Messages & Applying the three step Writing Process, Letter and Memos (Structure and elements) Practice in writing letters and memos, Three Types of Business Messages and situations: Routine/Neutral/Positive/Good news and Goodwill Msgs, Negative/Bad News Msgs, Persuasive Msgs
Employment Communication: Resume/CV, Job application (solicited and unsolicited)
Writing Proposals and Reports: Finding and Communicating Information, Communicating Information Through Visuals,Writing effective Proposals, Short Reports ( analytical and informational reports, memo and letter reports), Formal Reports ( structure and organization)
Reference Books
1.Business Communication Today (8th Edition) by Courtland L. Bovee & John V. Thill Prentice Hall International Inc. 2008
2.Process & product Approach to Business Communication (7th Edition) by Mary Allen Guffy. Thomson Publishers. 2010
3. Business & Administrative Communication (10th edition )by Kitty O Locker, Irwin McGraw-Hill.2012
4. Basic Business Communication, Skills for Empowering the Internet Generation, (9th Edition), Lesikar Flatley, McGraw-Hill Irwin. 2002
5. Business Communication 6th Edition, AC Buddy Krizan, Patricia Merrier, Carol Larson Jones, Jules Harcourt, South Western College Publishing. 2004
HS-105 PAKISTAN STUDIES
Historical and ideological perspective of Pakistan Movement,Two Nation Theory, Definition: Claim of Muslims of being a separate nation from Hindus, based upon cultural diversity, Significance: Cultural diversity and interests led to the demand of Pakistan – Lahore resolution, Creation of Pakistan, Factors leading to the creation of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam and the demand of Pakistan, Land of Pakistan,Geo-physical conditions, Geo-political and strategic importance of Pakistan, Natural resource, viz: mineral, water and power, Constitutional Process,Early efforts to make a constitution (1947-1956) problems and issues, Salient features of the constitution of 1956 and its abrogation., Salient features of the constitution of 1962 and its abrogation, Constitutional and political crisis of 1971, Salient features of the constitution of 1973, Constitutional developments since 1973 to date with special reference to the amendments to the constitutions, Contemporary issues in Pakistan, A brief survey of Pakistan Economy, An overview of current economic situation in Pakistan; problems, issues and future prospects, Social Issues, Pakistani Society and Culture-Broad features, Citizenship: national and international, Literacy and education in Pakistan: problems and issues, State of Science and Technology in Pakistan: A comparison with other countries with special reference to the Muslim world, Environmental Issues, Environmental pollution and its hazards: causes, and solutions, Environmental issues in Pakistan: government policies and measures and suggestions for improvement, Pakistan’s role in the preservation of nature through international conventions / treaties, Pakistan’s Foreign Policies,Evolution of Pakistan foreign policy-1947 to date, A brief survey of Relation with Neighbours, Super Powers & the Muslim World, Human Rights,Conceptual foundations of Human Rights, What are Human Rights? Definition, origins & significance, Comparative analysis of Islamic and Western Perspectives of Human rights, UN System for protection Human Rights, UN Charter, International Bill of Human Rights – an overview, Implementation mechanism, Other important international treaties and conventions, The convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women (CEDAW), International convention on the rights of child (CRC), Convention against torture (CAT), Other treaties and Convention, Pakistan’s response to Human Rights at national and international levels, Constitutional Provisions, Pakistan’s Obligations to international treaties and documents, Human Rights issues in Pakistan- a critical analysis, Pakistan’s stand on violation of Human Rights in the international perspective,
Recommended Books:
- “Pakistan Studies”, M. R. Kazmi, Oxford University Press, 2007.
- “Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan”, Hamid Khan, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2009.
- “Pakistan’s Foreign Policy”, Abdul Sattar, Oxford University Press, USA Illustrated Edition, 2007
- “Issues in Pakistan’s Economy”, Akbar Zaidi, Oxford University Press, USA, 2nd Edition, 2006.
HS-127 PAKISTAN STUDIES FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS (Alternate Course to HS-105)
Land of Pakistan, Land & People, Strategic importance, Important beautiful sights, Natural resources, A brief Historical background, A brief Historical survey of Muslim community in the sub-continent, British rule & its impacts, Indian re-action, Two nation theory – Origin & development, Factors leading towards the demand of a separate Muslim state, Creation of Pakistan, Government & Politics in Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan – A brief outline, Governmental structure – Federal & Provincial, Local Government Institutions, Political History – A brief account, Pakistan & the Muslim World, Relations with the Muslim countries, Language and Culture, Origins of Urdu Language, Influence of Arabic & Persian on Urdu Language & Literature, A short history of Urdu literature.
Recommended Books:
- M. Ikram Rabbani, Pakistan Affairs, 8th Ed., 2005, Carvan Enterprises
- Victoria Schofield, Old Roads - New Highways 50 years of Pakistan, 1997, Oxford University Press
HS-205 ISLAMIC STUDIES
Quranic Verses, Tauheed:Al-Ambiya-22, Al-Baqarah - 163&164, Prophethood:Aal-e-Imran-79, Al-Hashr-7, Al-Maidah-3, Here-After: Al –Baqarah-48, and one Hadith, Basic Islamic Practices, Al-Mu’ minun-1-11, and two Ahadith, Amer-Bil-Ma‘Roof Wa-Nahi Anil Munkar, the concept of Good & Evil, Importance and necessity of Da’wat-e-Deen Aal-e-Imran-110, Method of Da’wat-e-Deen An-Nahl-125, Aal-e-Imran-104, and two Ahadith, Unity of the Ummah, Al-Imran-103, Al-Hujurat-10, Aal-e-Imran-64, Al-An’ am –108, and two Ahadith, Kasb-e-Halal, Ta ha-81, Al- A’raf-32-33, Al-Baqarah-188, and two Ahadith, Haquq-ul-Ibad, Protection of life Al-Maidah-32, Right to Property Al-Nisa-29, Right to Respect & Dignity Al-Hujurat-11-12, Freedom of Expression: Al-Baqarah-256, Equality: Al-Hujurat-13, Economic Security: Al-Ma’arij-24-25, Employment Opportunity on Merit: An-Nisa-58, Access to Justice: An- Nisa-135, Women’s Rights, An-Nahl-97, Al-Ahzab-35, An-Nisa-07, Relations with Non-Muslims, Al-Mumtahenah-8-9, Al-Anfa’al-61 and The last Sermon of Hajj of Holy Prophet (PBUH):Relevant extracts, Seerat (life) of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Birth, life at Makkah, declaration of prophet hood, preaching & its difficulties, migration to Madina, brotherhood (Mawakhat)& Madina Charter, The Holy Wars of the Prophet (Ghazwat-e-Nabawi), Hujjat-ul-Wida, The last sermon of Khutbatulwida: Translation and important points, Islamic Civilization, In the sub-continent: pre-Islamic civilizations, The political, social & moral impacts of Islamic civilization, In the world: academic, intellectual, social & cultural impact of Islam on the world.
Recommended Books:
- Dr. Saeedullah Qazi: Thematic study of Holy Quran & Hadith.
- “Life of the Prophet”, Ibne Ishaq, AAlfred Guillaume (Translator), Oxford University Press, 2002.
HS-209 ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR (Alternate Course for Non-Muslim Students – in place of HS-205)
Introduction to Ethics, Definition of Ethics, Definition between normative and positive science, Problem of freewill, Method of Ethics, Uses of Ethics, Ethical Theories, History of Ethics: Greek Ethics, Medieval, Modern Ethics, Basic concept of right and wrong: good and evil, Utilitarianism, hedonism, self-realization: egoism, intuitionism, rationalism, Kant’s moral philosophy, Ethics & Religion, The relation of Ethics to religion, Basic ethical principles of major religions: Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Islam, Ethics, Society, and moral theory, Ethical foundation of Rights and Duties, Applied Ethics, Society as the background of moral life, Universalism and Altruism, Theories of punishment,
Recommended Books :
- “Philosophy: the Basic”, Warburton N., Routledge, London, 4th Edition, 2004.
- “An Introduction to Ethics”, Lillie W., 3rd Edition, Reprint 1974.
CS 101 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Structure and organization of Computers and Computer Systems, Computer Peripherals, Introduction to Software development process, Modular decomposition, Introduction to common Software packages and their applications, Programming languages and their comparative study, High level and low level languages, Introduction to data communication, LAN and WAN, Introduction to operating systems. The practical work will base on the above course.
CY-115 GENERAL CHEMISTRY-I
Atomic and molecular structure, States of matter, Atomic theory, Periodic Table, Periodicity Electromagnetic spectrum and radiant energy, Quantum mechanics, Bohr Atomic model, Orbitals, electron spin and electronic configuration ,Lewis Structures, Octet Rules, Ionic, Covalent and Metallic Bonding, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theory, Resonance Forms, Electronegativity, polarity and dipole moments, Types of reactions, Balancing, Types of solutes (ionic and molecular); electrolytes Solubility rules, Molecular and ionic equations, Conversion of and conservation of matter and energy, Empirical and molecular formulae, Reactant and product calculations, yields, Characteristics and properties of gases, Gas laws, Ideal vs. Real gases, Kinetic-molecular theory Dalton’s laws of partial pressures, Diffusion, effusion and Graham’s Law, Liquefaction of gases. Liquids and Solids: Kinetic-molecular description of liquids and solids, Intermolecular forces and their effects on liquid properties, Bulk properties of liquids and solids, Vapor pressures and phase changes, Phase diagrams. Energy and chemical changes/reactions, Enthalpy and heats of reaction Hess’s Law, calorimetry. Redox reactions, Electrochemical Cells, Electrode potential, Emf of the Cell, Standard Electrode Potentials, Electrochemical Series, Fuel Cells, Electrolytic Cells, Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis, Corrosion of metals, Prevention of Corrosion.
Recommended Books:
- Atkins, P.W. Physical Chemistry, 7thed.; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003.
- Hill J.W. Petrucci R. H. General Chemistry, 8thed.; Prentice Hall: New jersey, 2002.
- Shriver, D.F. Atkins, P.W. Langford, C.H. Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1990
CY-116 GENERAL CHEMISTRY-II
Properties of simple mixtures/solutions, Concentration terms, The thermodynamic description of mixtures, Partial molar quantities, The chemical potential of liquids, Ideal solutions, Raoult's law, The properties of solutions: liquid mixtures, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, solubility, Osmosis and Osmotic pressure, solvent and solute activity, Vant Hoff's theory of dilute solutions, Colloids, Spontaneous chemical reactions and equilibrium, Properties of equilibrium state, Le Chatelier's Principle, the reaction quotient, Relationship between Kc and Kp, Heterogeneous equilibria, The nature of solubility equilibria, Distribution law, Application of the distribution law to the selected systems like solvent extraction, Extraction of metals from their ore, Investigation of complex ions, Chromatography. Zeroth, first and second laws of thermodynamics, state functions, thermodynamic reversibility and irreversibility, Work done and the change of internal energy during isothermal expansion of an ideal gas, Change of internal energy due to heat transfer at constant volume and constant pressure. Heat capacities of a gas at constant volume and constant pressure, Arrhenius and Bronsted theories of acids and bases, Self-Ionization of water, pH scale, Kw, Strong and Weak Acids and Bases, Ka and Kb, Common Ion Effect in acid base Equilibria, Buffer Solutions, Solubility Equilibria, Lewis Acids and Bases, Hard and Soft Acids and Bases. The covalent bond, Hybridization, Stereoisomerism (optical/cis-trans isomerism), Alcohols (oxidation, esterification, ether formation), Aldehydes & ketones (oxidation, reduction, hemiacetal and acetal formation, aldol condensation), Carboxylic acids (reduction, ester formation, acid anhydride formation, salt formation, amide formation), Amines, Metallic, Polymers (natural and synthetic), Biomaterials (composite, metallic, ceramics, polymeric & biological).
Recommended Books:
- Hill J.W.; Petrucci R. H. General Chemistry, 8thed.; Prentice Hall: New jersey, 2002.
- Solomons, T.W.G. Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York,1992.
- Morrison, R.T.; Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, 6th ed.; Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 1992.
EL-232 ELECTRONICS
Conduction in Solids: Introduction, mechanics of conduction, mobility. Bohr’s model for the elements, energy level diagrams for solids, conductors, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, electron-hole pairs in an intrinsic semiconductor, distribution of electron and hole in conduction and valence bands, recombination and lifetime.
Semiconductors and Diodes: Donor and acceptor impurities, Zero biased, forward biased and reverse biased junction diodes, junction diode current equation, depletion barrier width and junction capacitance, diffusion capacitance, Zero and Avalanche break down, Hall effect, Fabrication of pn junction, diodes.
Electron Emission Devices: Types of electron emissions, thermionic diode, volt ampere characteristics, Child Langmuin Power Law, Gas filled diode, Thermionic triode, Parameters and characteristics, Tetrode, Pentode, and beam power tubes , Parameters and characteristics.
Simple Diode Circuits and Applications: Mathematical and graphical analysis of diode circuits, The ideal and non ideal diodes, Piecewise linear models, Analysis of piecewise linear models of vacuum tube and junction diodes, The half wave rectifier. The inductance filter, The inductance capacitance filter circuits, Zener and gas diode, Voltage regulator circuits, Clamping and DC restorer circuits, Voltage doubler circuits, Clipping and limiting circuits.
Bipolar and Field Effect Transistors: Transistor biasing and thermal stabilization, The operating point, Bias stability, Collector to base bias, Fixed bias, Emitter feedback bias, Stabilization for the self biased circuits, Field effect transistors, Basic principles and theory, Types, FET characteristics, Different configurations-common gate, Common source and common drain, The FET, small signal model, Parameters, Biasing of the FET.
Amplifier Circuits: Introduction “h” parameters, Hybrid model for transistor, Elementary treatment, Low frequency transistor amplifier circuits, Stage cascaded LF.
EL 238 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
RTL and DTL circuit, Transistor-transistor logic, Integrated injection logic, MOS and CMOS, Fan in and fan out, Open collector TTL Gate, Tri state TTL gates, Schottky TTL and emitter coupled logic , Non saturated logic, Combinational circuit desihn, A/D and D/A conversion. The practical work will be based on the above course.
EL-255 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
The turbo C Programming Environment: Setting up the Integrated Development Environment, File used in C program development, Use of Integrated Development Environment, The basic structure of C program, Explaining the printf() function.
C Building Blocks: Variable, Input / Output, Operators, Comments.
Loops: The for loop, The while loop, The do while loop.
Decisions: The if statement, The if-else statement, The else-if construct, The Switch statement, The conditional operator.
Functions: Simple functions, Functions that return a value, Using arguments to pass data to a function, Using more than one functions, External variables, Prototype versus classical K and R, Preprocessor directives.
Array and Strings: Arrays, Referring to individual elements of the array, String, String functions, Multidimensional arrays.
Pointers: Pointer overview, Returning data from functions, Pointers and arrays, Pointers and Strings, Double indirection, Pointers to Pointers, Structures, Unions and ROM BIOS.
Turbo C Graphic Functions: Text-mode function graphics-Mode functions, Text with graphics.
Files: Types of disk I/O, Standard, Input/output binary mode and text mode, Record, Input/output, Random access, Error conditions, System –level Input/output, Redirection.
Advanced Variables: Storage classes, Enumerated data type, Renaming data type with typedef, Identifiers and naming classes, Type conversion and casting, Labels and goto statement.
C++ and Object Oriented Programming: Object oriented programming, Some useful C++ features, Classes and objects, Constructors and memory allocations, Inheritance, Function overloading, Operator overloading. Practical design through object oriented programming.
The practical work will be based on the above course.
MS – 173 CALCULUS
Vectors: Review of vectors, Vector derivatives. Line and surface Integrals. Gradient of a Scalar.
Complex Number: Argand diagram, De Moivre formula, roots of polynomial equations, curve and regions in the complex plane, standard functions and their inverses (exponential, circular and hyperbolic functions).
Limits and Continuity: Bounds and bounded sets, Limit point of sets, Sequence, Convergence of sequences monotonic sequences, Function and their graph, limit of function and continuous functions.
Differential Calculus: Differentiation and Successive differentiation and its application; Leibnitz theorem, Taylor and Maclaurin theorems with remainders in Cauchy and Lagrange form, Taylor and Maclaurin series, L’Hopitals Rule, extreme values of a function of one variable using first and second derivative test, asymptotes of a function, curvature and radius of curvature of a curve, partial differentiation, exact differential and its application in computing errors, Multivariate functions, Maxima and Minima for multivariate functions, Maxima Minima under certain conditions (Language Multiplier).
Integral Calculus: Indefinite integrals and their computational techniques, reduction formulae definite integrals and their convergence, Beta and Gamma functions and their identities, double and triple integration with applications. (Area, Volume, centroid, inertia, arc length).
Vector Algebra: Scalar and Vector quantities, physical and geometrical meanings. Algebra of vectors. Scalar and Vector triple products.
Recommended Books:
- “Engineering Mathematics”, Anthony Croft, Robert Davison and Martin Hargeaves, Pearson Education Limited, 3rd Edition, 2001.
- “Calculus”, Thomas & Finney, 3rd Edition, Addison Wesley Longman, 2006.
- “Engineering Mathematics”, K.A. Stroud and Dexter J. Booth, 6th Edition, Industrial Press, 2007.
- “Calculus and Analytical Geometry”, Howard Anton, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 5th Edition, 1998.
- “Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering”, John H. Mathews, Jones and Bartlett Publishers Inc. 5th Edition, 2006.
MT-227 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1st Order Differential Equations: Basic concept; Formation of differential equations and solution of differential equations by direct integration and by separating the variables; Homogeneous equations and equations reducible to homogeneous from; Linear differential equations of the order and equations reducible to the linear form; Bernoulli’s equations. Application in relevant Engineering: orthogonal trajectories: Numerical approximation to solutions; Solution in series. Euler method, Euler modified method, Runge Kutta method of order 4,
2nd and Higher Order Equations: Special types of IInd order differential equations with constant coefficients and their solutions; The operator D; Inverse operator I/D; Solution of differential by operator D methods; Special cases, Cauchy’s differential equations; Simultaneous differential equations; simple application of differential equations in relevant Engineering.
Partial Differential Equation: Basic concepts and formation of partial differential equations; Linear homogeneous partial differential equations and relations to ordinary differential equations; Solution of first order linear and special types of second and higher order differential equations; D’ Alembert’s solution of the wave equation and two dimensional wave equations; Lagrange’s solution: Various standard form
Laplace Integral& Transformation: Definition, Laplace transforms of some elementary functions, first translation or shifting theorem, second translation or shifting theorem, change of scale property, Laplace transform of the nth order derivative, initial and final value theorem Laplace transform of integrals. Laplace transform of functions tn F(t) and F(t)/ t, Laplace transform of periodic function, evaluation of integrals, definition of inverse Laplace transform and inverse transforms, convolution theorem, solutions of ordinary differential using Laplace transform.
MT-331 PROBABILITY& STATISTICS
STATISTICS: Introduction, Types of data & variables, presentation to data, object, classifications, Tabulation, Frequency distribution, Graphical representation, Simple & Multiple Bar diagrams, Sartorial & Pie-Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curves & their types.
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION: Statistics Averages, Median Mode, Quartiles, Range, Moments, Skew ness & Kurtosis, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation, Variance & its coefficient, Practical Significance in related problems.
CURVE FITTING: Introduction, fitting of a first and second degree curve, fitting of exponential and logarithmic curves, related problems. Principle of least squares, Second order Statistics & Time series not in bit detail.
SIMPLE REGRAESSION &CORRELATION :Introduction, Scatter diagrams, Correlation & its Coefficient, Regression lines, Rank Correlation & its Coefficient, Probable Error (P.E), Related problems.
SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS :Introduction, Population, Parameter & Statistic, Objects of sampling, Sampling distribution of Mean, Standard errors, Sampling & Non-Sampling Errors, Random Sampling, Sampling with & without replacement, Sequential Sampling, Central limit theorem with practical significance in related problems.
STATISTICAL INFERENCE AND TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS : Introduction, Estimation, Types of Estimates, Confidence interval, Tests of Hypothesis, Chi Square distribution/test, one tails & two tails tests. Application in related problems.
PROBABILITY : Basic concepts, Permutation & Combination, Definitions of probability, Laws of probability. Conditional probability, Baye'snile. Related problems in practical significance.
RANDOM VARIABLES :Introduction, Discrete & Continuous random variables, Random Sequences and transformations. Probability distribution, Probability density function, Distribution function, Mathematical expectations, Moment Generating Function (M.G.F.), Markove random walks chain/ Related problems.
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS : Introduction, Discrete probability distributions, Binomial Poisson, Hyper geometric & Negative binomial distributions. Continuous probability distribution, Uniform, Exponential & Normal distributions & their practical significance.
MT-272 LINEAR ALGEBRA & GEOMETRY
Linear Algebra: Linearity and linear dependence of vectors, basis, dimension of a vector space, field matrix and type of matrices (singular, non- singular, symmetric, non- symmetric, upper, lower, diagonal tri-diagonal matrix), Rank of a matrix using row operations and special method, echelon and reduced echelon forms of a matrix, determination of consistency of a system of linear equation using rank, transitions matrix.
Euclidean Spaces and Transformation: Geometric representation of vector, norm of vector, Euclidean inner product, projections and orthogonal projections, Euclidean n spaces n properties Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, Euclidean transformations, apply geometric transformations to plane figure, composition of transformations.
Application of linear Algebra: Leontief Economic models, Electrical Networks, Scaling, translation, rotation, and projection etc.
Eigen values & Eigen Spaces : Interpret eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a matrix in terms of transformation it represents, convert a transformation into a matrix eigen value problem, find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of order not more than 3×3 matrices algebraically, determine the modal matrix for a given matrix, reduce a matrix to diagonal (form and Jordan form, state the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and use it to find powers and the inverse of a matrix, understand a simple numerical method for finding the eigenvectors of a matrix, use appropriate software to compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix, Define quadratic form and determine its nature using eigenvalues.
Solid Geometry :Coordinate Systems in three dimensions. Direction cosines and ratios, vector equation of a straight line, plane and sphere, curve tracing of a function of two and three variables, Surfaces of revolutions. Transformations (Cartesian to polar &cylindrical).
MM-401 MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES
Wet analysis, Microscopic characterisation, Optical microscopy, interference contrast, quantitative analysis. Image analysis, SEM and TEM principles and configuration, elastic and inelastic scattering, SE, BSE, imaging, WDS and EDS microanalysis, BSCP, TEM BF and DF contrast, diffraction patterns, STEM. Defect analysis, sample preparation, EPMA, field ion microscopy (AP-FIM) and concentration profiling. Scanning tunnelling, acoustic and atomic force microscopy, DTA, DSC and dilatometry, AES and SIMS, molecular spectroscopy, Electron micro probe analysis, Gas analysis by mass spectrometry.
MM-406 ELECTRONIC, MAGNETIC AND OPTICAL MATERIALS
Survey and classification of materials according to electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Classification of materials according to magnetic properties, origin of magnetic moment of atoms, theories of all types of magnetism. Magnetization curves, hysteresis, magnetic domains, domain walls, methods of observations of domains, soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, powder magnets. Materials for semiconductor devices and VLSI. Thin film technology, metalization, packaging, opto-electronic devices and solar cells.
EL 304 INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS
Introduction: Industrial world, measurement and accuracy, control system concept, preventive maintenance, safety fundamentals.
Signal Conditioning and Data Communication: Voltage to current conversion and current to voltage conversions, filtering, Industrial Communication standards and practices.
Process Control Systems: On-off control system, proportional control system, proportional and integral control system, PID control system.
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC): Basic controller operation, hardware components, CPUs, addressing, memory organization, PLC programming.
Microcontrollers: Internal Architecture, addressing modes, data movement instructions, control instructions, microcontroller programming, hardware interfacing.
Motor Control Systems: Braking dc motors, speed control of dc motor, stepper motor, braking ac motor, speed control of ac motor.
Introduction To Robotics: Introductory aspects of robotics, homogeneous transforms, robot arm kinematics, robot configurations, inverse kinematics, robot arm dynamics, robot control, trajectory planning, work-space consideration, obstacle avoidance.
Overview of SCADA and DCS: Definitions, Architecture, Hardware specifications, working principles, communication medium for a telemetry system.
EL 484 OPTO ELECTRONICS AND MICROWAVE SYSTEMS
Light: Historical background, The nature of light, Basic laws of light, Polarization, Interference, Diffraction, Units of Light.
Optical Fiber: Propagation of light in dielectric, Propagation of light in planar dielectric waveguide, Optical fiber waveguide, Wave propagation in optical fiber, Types of optical fiber, Optical fiber bandwidth calculation, Attenuation in optical fiber, Fiber material and fabrication.
Semiconductor Light Sources: Light emission in Semiconductor, Light emitting diodes and Types of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Spectral characteristics, Modulation capabilities and conversion efficiency, LED drive circuit, Stimulation emission in semiconductors, Lasing Conditions in semiconductors, Semiconductors Laser Diodes (SLDs), Types of Semiconductor Laser Diodes, Spectral and output characteristics, Semiconductors Laser Diodes drive circuits.
Laser: Emission and absorption of radiation, The Einstein relation, Absorption of radiation, Population inversion, Optical feedback, Threshold condition, LASER losses, Population inversion and pumping threshold conditions, LASER modes, Classes of LASER, Single mode operation.
Optical Transmitter: Photo detection in semiconductors, Semiconductor photodiodes, Responsivity of photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, Avalanche photodiodes (APDs), Photodiode noise considerations, Optical receivers and receiver design, Measurement and prediction of receiver sensitivity.
Microwave Devices: Transistors, Varactors, Step recovery diodes, Multipliers, Parametric amplifiers, Tunnel diodes, Negative resistance amplifier, Gunn effect, Avalanche effect diode and other microwave diodes, Klystron and Magnetron and traveling wave tube. |